For better recognition an activity code is formulated in the form of

For better recognition an activity code is formulated

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For better recognition, an activity code is formulated in the form of “Discipline.Step”, where the Discipline means discipline codes for different disciplines (that is, A for architecture, S for structure, M for mechanical, E for electrical, and P for plumbing), and the Step uses digits to represent project stages in the PM. The S.1, for example, means the conceptual structural design. In some cases, one activity may contain several sub-activities, so newly added digits need to follow the Step. As shown in Figure 3(b), the S.3 contains S.3.1, S.3.2, S.3.3, etc. In order to enable users to conduct activities in a stan- dardized way, a table template for specifying each activity was designed. Based on the interviews with structural en- gineers, the tasks for each activity in the PM of structural design are documented in Table 1. In addition, Table 2 presents an example of the process specification in de- tailed structural design (S.5), including task, analysis, and ER. Because of the paramount importance of the analysis in structural design, the description about structural anal- ysis is added into this table template (as shown in Table 2). 1.2. Developing ER Matrix for the delivery of structural design information After defining the PM of structural design, various ERs which are imported to or exported from some activities need to be identified to form a target exchange model. For example, at the preliminary design stage, a structural en- gineer builds the preliminary structural model, and then generates some information required by the architect to form an exchange model. The exchange model includes several objects and attributes for architectural design, that is, the ERs. Thus, the exchange requirement is a key factor in information delivery. As shown in Figure 3, the ERs are represented by color-coded files, and those at the same stage follow the same color. To standardize ER names and distinguish model versions, a coding mechanism was proposed with the form “Discipline_ER.Version-Discipline_ER.Version”. For example, the S_ER.1-A_ER.2 means that an exchange model is extracted from a structural model (version 1) to build an architectural model (version 2). The form “Disci- pline_ER.Version” means a complete data model exported from the activity. Given the fact that data models from different disciplines need to be integrated for BIM collabo- ration, the form “Discipline-BIM_Co” is used to represent these models. Through a series of interviews with experienced struc- tural engineers, structural objects of civil buildings are di- vided into three types: project, exchange, and discipline- specific elements (as shown in Figure 4). – The project elements include the project and site. These elements are fundamental to create building models from different disciplines, and they remain the same within different models of one building pro- ject. Hence, these elements do not need to be deliv- ered to other disciplines.
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