2 using the case of bakweri explain how belief in

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different classes of the society. 2. Using the case of Bakweri, explain how belief in “Nyongo” promoted socioeconomic and political backwardness.
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Session 6: Re-constructing the Witchcraf Discourse in Africa 6.1. Adjudication of witchcraf Legal injunction against the practice of witchcraft exists in the former Francophone African countries (e.g., Benin, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Mali and Mauritania). Some Anglophone African countries like Kenya, South Africa, Uganda, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe adjudicate against witchcraft. The challenge of identifying and punishing witches lie in having the correct evidence. In many cases witchcraft accusation is difficult to substantiate. Judgments are based on the judge’s personal conviction, confession, and testimony of traditional healers. Confession is still considered to be the most significant evidence in cases of witchcraft.
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6: Re-constructing the Witchcraf Discourse in Africa ..1 6.1. Adjudication of witchcraf In Cameroon, courts condemn “witches” to heavy sentences (up to ten years in jail and heavy fines). Often the testimony of nganga (traditional healers) is adopted as conclusive proof. In South Africa, government has formalized the respect for “African knowledge”, and how to work with inyanga. But it is doubtful if witchcraft can be adjudicated formally. Even if it is possible to adjudicate against witchcraft, it is doubtful if witchcraft can be handled by formal courts. There is also the risk of bugging the state with issues from the metaphysical dimensions.
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6: Re-constructing the Witchcraf Discourse in Africa ..2 6.1. Adjudication of witchcraf Some social anthropologists have described this current wave of “millennial capitalism” with the proliferation networks as occulted globalization. People are connected by “occult economies”, pyramid schemes, transnational financial speculations, globalized smuggling, and satanist networks on the Internet. These global forces generate high level of social disorder, and it is difficult to imagine how the law can deal with these disorders.
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6: Re-constructing the Witchcraf Discourse in Africa ..3 6.1. Adjudication of witchcraf The Cameroonian example shows that a state offensive against witchcraft can be quite counterproductive. What is the use of jailing supposed witches for several years when it will not stop them from being dangerous? There is also a problem dealing with the local witch expert as a key witness. Why should the judges believe them. At the same time, can judges ever establish proof in this occult domain without using their expertise?
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6: Re-constructing the Witchcraf Discourse in Africa ..3 6.1. Adjudication of witchcraf It can be argued that witchcraft constitute an attack on the social order, at the same time, it is a mechanism for maintaining the social order. Several studies support the view that witch doctors and others have contributed positively to ensuring social order and improving well being.
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