Unfortunately air pollution which is an increasing problem in India is reducing

Unfortunately air pollution which is an increasing

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Unfortunately air pollution, which is an increasing problem in India, is reducing the amount of rainfall brought by the monsoon circulation. Many of the world’s most polluted cities are in India.
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Global Winds and Ocean Currents Energy is passed from moving air to water by friction . Winds create a drag , especially winds blowing steadily across the water. This causes the surface layer of the water to move , forming ocean currents. Other factors important in influencing ocean currents: a) Coriolis Effect b) Water density differences: Water flows from areas of greater density to those of less density, creating currents. (Warm water tends to have a high salt content and is less dense than colder, more dense water.)
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Gulf Stream A warm, deep, clear water current 0.9 to 1.2 miles deep 1.8 to 6.2 mph forward speed Forward progress per day of 40 – 150 miles High saline content (rides on top of less saline, denser, colder water). Westerlies deflect the Gulf Stream to the east (right) between 35 0 N and 45 0 N. North Atlantic Drift The North Atlantic Drift is an extension of the Gulf Stream . It keeps Great Britain and much of Northern Europe warmer than one would expect for their latitudes .
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Cold Currents 1) Cold currents influence temperatures of adjacent land areas . 2) Cold currents intensify aridity in the principal west coast deserts: The Atacama Desert in Peru and Chile The Namib in Southern Africa Aridity is intensified, because the lower air layers are chilled by the cold offshore waters . The air becomes stable and resists upward movements necessary for precipitation (reduces convection). 3) But the cold currents also cause temperatures to approach and often reach the dew point. (Tropical deserts near cold currents are relatively cool, damp places, with minimal measurable precipitation and are often shrouded in fog.) Plants in these places get their moisture from dew .
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Importance of Ocean Currents 1) for navigation 2) for climate Ocean currents play a major role in maintaining Earth’s heat balance. Ocean currents transfer heat from the tropics to the poles. Ocean waters account for a quarter of the total heat transport. Global winds account for the remaining three quarters of the total heat transport.
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Typical Year Trade winds converge near the Equator and flow westward toward Indonesia. A warm surface current along the Equator moves from east to west, piling up a thick layer of warm surface water . (Sea levels are higher by 16 inches in the Western Pacific.) In the Eastern Pacific there is a strong Peruvian Current which brings upwelling of cold water and lower sea levels . El Nino The Southern Oscillation occurs for unknown reasons. Barometric pressure rises in the Indonesian Region . This causes the pressure gradient along the Equator to weaken or reverse.
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El Nino (continued) Trade winds then diminish and may even reverse . This reversal creates a major change in the Equatorial Current system. Warm weather starts to flow eastward . Water temperatures in the Central and Eastern Pacific begin to increase and sea level also rises.
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  • Fall '16
  • Mark Smith
  • weather, Tropical cyclone, Atmospheric dynamics

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