Informal Fallacies Worksheet

Apeeal to popularity guilt by association 7

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Apeeal to popularity, Guilt by association 7. Homosexuality is perfectly natural; it’s found in the animal kingdom in a variety of species. In fact, some homosexual pairs of chimps and dolphins ‘remain faithful’ their entire lives. People have said that homosexual acts are unethical because they are unnatural. But now we can see that obviously this view is mistaken. In fact, the more intelligent the species, the higher its frequency of homosexuality. Based on the fact that God is supposedly the highest of all intellects, it would seem, then, that God must be gay. Equivocation (unnatural and natural), False analogy 8. I’m against free school lunches for children of poor families. If we give these kids free lunches, why not give them free breakfasts too? And if these kids are indeed malnourished, they would equally well deserve free dinners. And why only the kids? Lack of good nutrition knows no age boundaries. The whole family should be allowed to join the school lunch program. And now we’ve got lunch rooms with as many adults in them as kids and our school budget is gushing red. This idea is bankrupt from the get go! Slippery slope 9. Background: From an ad that appeared in Harper’s magazine, October 1978, entitled “Mother Nature is lucky her products don’t need labels”: “All foods, even natural ones, are made up of chemicals. But natural foods don’t have to list their ingredients. So it’s often assumed they’re chemical-free. In fact, the ordinary orange is a miniature chemical factory. And the good old potato contains arsenic among its more than 150 ingredients. This doesn’t mean natural foods are dangerous. If they were, they wouldn’t be on the market. All man- made foods are tested for safety. And they often provide more nutrition, at a lower cost, than natural foods. They even use many of the same chemical ingredients. So you see, there really isn’t much difference between foods made by Mother Nature and those made by man. What’s artificial is the line drawn between them.” Equivocation (chemicals), False analogy ( orange – factory) 10. Putting people in prison without trial is oppression. Making people fearful of the government is oppression. Taxing people is oppression. Making children go to school is oppression. Having parents care for children is oppression. Every human society is based on some or all of these practices. Therefore, every human society is based on oppression. (From Trudy Govier, A Practical Study of Argument ) Slippery slope 11. Management is responsible for taking care of the corporation’s means of production. And the workforce is an indispensable means of production for any industry. So management has the responsibility of seeing to the health and well- being of the employees. And that’s why management should agree to provisions 2
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for health club memberships in the next contract. Equivocation (means of production) 12. From Microsoft’s perspective, no breakup is even remotely thinkable. Gates says it’s functionally impossible to split the operating system from the applications
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Apeeal to popularity Guilt by association 7 Homosexuality...

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