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ocean plastic clean-up. This report will also compare and analyze two solutions towards different plastics and determine whether the solution is useful or effective. Causes and consequences According to the literature review, there are three influential reasons leading marine species to suffer injury and death. Research by Barnes (2002) proves that plastic waste provides an opportunity for alien organisms to invade new habitats, which might cause viruses transmission and infection. As a result, plastic waste in the oceans should be cleaned up. Meanwhile, Li (2016) found that marine animals such as sea turtles, mammals, and seabirds are easy to encounter entanglement with plastic garbage, which can lead to mortality. If this issue is not solved in the future, more and more ocean organisms would be affected. According to Mattsson et al. (2015), three types of plastic (macro, micro and nano-sized) have particularly adverse impacts on different marine species. Problems for plastics already at sea are not easily to tackle, therefore, efforts to recycle and avoid the surface water pollution with plastics must urgently be paid in place. Discussion 4
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SOLUTIONS TO REDUCE OCEAN PLASTIC WASTE All walks of society from individuals and plastic producers to governments and related departments and organizations, as well as scientists should be engaged in reducing ocean plastic waste ( Worm, Lotze, Jubinville, Wilcox, & Jambeck, 2017 ). This research will represent two solutions: the circular economy and ocean plastic waste clean-up. Circular economy Unlike the ‘take, make, dispose’ industrial model, a circular economy is a restorative system that designs the waste out and lessens the negative impact by recycling, which makes it economical and environmental friendly ( Geissdoerfer, Savaget, Bocken, & Hultink, 2017) . Recycling is an essential method which should be done by people and be regulated by the government (Carman, Machain, & Campagna, 2015). Reutilizing plastic products could reduce the amount of ocean plastic that be dumped into landfills and eventually reduce plastic pollution. At the same time, impacts of open landfills and open-air burning on the environment can be lessened by recycling. 5
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SOLUTIONS TO REDUCE OCEAN PLASTIC WASTE Figure 1. Circular economy Rubicon Honored as 2017 Circular Economy Award Finalist | Rubicon Blog. (2018, January 04). Retrieved from - economy-award/ The diagram illustrates the process and circulation of a circular economy. In a circular economy, economic activities build and rebuild through the entire system ( Geissdoerfer et al., 2017). Because of the fact that a sustainable world does not
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