Acidic proton is attached to oxygen atom strong acids

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-Acidic proton is attached to oxygen atom -Strong acids: sulfuric acid [H2SO4], nitric acid [HNO3], & perchloric acid [HCLO4] -Weak acids: phosphoric acid [H3PO4], nitrous acid [HNO2], & hypochlorous acid [HOCl], HCN ORGANIC ACIDS -With carbon atom backbone -Usually weak -Weak acids: acetic acid [CH3COOH] & benzoic acid [C6H5COOH] MONOPROTIC ACIDS
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-Having one acidic proton -Hydrogen sulfate ion [HSO4-], Nitrous acid [HNO2], Acetic acid [HC2H3O2], Ammonium ion [NH4+] AMPHOTERIC -Substance that can behave as acid or base -Water is more common -Ex. HPO4^2- = pH= .5(pKa2 + pKa3) AUTOIONIZATION -Involves transfer of a proton from one water molecule to another to produce hydroxide ion & hydronium ion ION PRODUCT CONSTANT (dissociation constant) -Kw -2H2O----- H3O+ OH- -Kw= [H30+] [OH-] -[H+]= [OH-}= 1.0x10^-7 (at 25 C) -Kw= 1.0x10^-14 1. Neutral solution: [H+]= [OH-] 2. Acidic solution: [H+]> [OH-] 3. Basic solution [H+]< [OH-] -If Kw increases, then energy is the reactant= endothermic process pH SCALE pH= -log (H+) pOH= -log (OH-) pK= -log K [OH-]= 10^-pOH pH OF STRONG ACIDS -Strong acid: Hydrochloric acid [HCL] -Equilibrium will shift left, so if 1.0 M of HCL, then pH=-log [H+]= -log(1.00)= 0
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pH OF WEAK ACIDS -Weak acid: Hydrofluoric acid [HF], HCN pH OF SALTS OF INTERMEDIATE FORMS -NaH2PO4: pH= .5(pK1 + pK2) -NaHPO4: pH= .5(pK2+ pk3) PERCENT DISSOCIATION -(Amount dissociation/ initial concentration) x100 -The more dilute the weak acid, then the greater the percent dissociation BASES -Strong bases: Sodium hydroxide [NaOH], Potassium hydroxide
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  • Fall '07
  • Holcombe
  • Equilibrium, Acids, Diprotic Acid

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