Finally the opening Like it your grace a and b exempli fi es highly

Finally the opening like it your grace a and b

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role of fault-maker. Finally, the opening ‘‘Like it your grace’’ ( a and b ) exempli fi es highly conventional forms of the respect behavior I will discuss in the next section, behavior which minimizes the risk of impos- ing by implying that the power or status of the hearer exempts him or her from such risk. ¹⁷ Where does this analysis of Norfolk’s advice-giving take us? The analysis accounts for a surprisingly large number of stylistic features in Norfolk’s speeches. If this kind of analysis, oriented toward social situ- ation (social situation conceived not as static social organization but as dynamic interaction) explains much, then it should lead us to call into question other standard ways of accounting for the same stylistic fea- tures. For example, it should lead us to question the assumption that ‘‘The style is the man’’ – that is, that stylistic phenomena correlate to  Politeness and dramatic character
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individual personalities in Shakespeare’s plays. The modi fi cation Bakh- tin proposes – ‘‘Style is at least two persons’’ – may be more adequate to the preceding analysis, for Norfolk’s language constantly anticipates and attends to Buckingham’s face wants and so – to use again Bakhtin’s locution – is oriented toward a ‘‘future answer-word.’’ ¹⁸ What we get is not Norfolk’s individualistic style but the style of a person giving advice (Ranking of the imposition) to a high-ranking social equal (Power) with whom he has more than a passing acquaintance (Distance). Such a style is predictably marked by positive politeness.   King Henry VIII yields many examples of negative politeness because so many of its speech situations involve address to King Henry, whose power relative to all other persons in the play is very great. Imperatives, with their assumption of the right to impose on others, are an obvious prerogative of power. Henry claims as another de fi ning prerogative of his power the right to non-imposition. This is made explicit when the approach of the dukes of Norfolk and Su ff olk to Henry’s presence draws this rebuke: ‘‘Who’s there, I say? How dare you thrust yourselves / Into my private meditations? / Who am I? ha?’’ ( . .   ). Clearly, speak- ing to the powerful gives rise to a dilemma, for speech interaction cannot be sustained without the need arising on both sides for directives and other face-threatening acts – that is, the need to impose. Indeed, a large power di ff erence multiplies the number of potential face-threaten- ing acts, so making their performance still less avoidable; for power brings into the realm of risk such acts as small involuntary body move- ments or the very fact of entering into speech, even to answer questions.
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