- Plot mean ratings for each object on each scale of visual scale - Semantic differential scale - Contains a series of adjectives that respondents could pick to describe the object at hand - This measures the attitude towards the object - Disadvantage - Halo effect - The overall perception of the brand could crowd over a property of the brand - Halo effect is driven by brand equity - Type of measure - Nominal scale - Those that use only labels - Ordinal scale - Those with which the researcher can rank order the respondents or responses - Scale measures - Interval scale - Those in which the distance between each level is equal - Ratio scale - Those in which a true zero exists
- Why is measurement scale important - If you wish to calculate weighted average - must use interval or ratio scale - If you have nominal or ordinal scale, must summarize results by calculating frequency distribution - Questionnaire development - Practice of selecting appropriate response formats and wording questions so that they are understandable and unbiased - Market researchers develop questions to measure - Attitudes - Beliefs - Behaviors - Demographics - Four Do’s of question developing - Question should be focused on a single issue/topic - Question should be brief - Question should be grammatically simple - Question should be crystal clear - Four Don'ts of question developing - Do not lead the respondent to a particular answer - Leading question gives strong cue to respondents - Do not use loading wording or phrases in questions - Loaded question has buried in it wording elements and sneaky presupposition or it might make reference to universal beliefs - Do not ask two questions at once - always separate it - Do not use words that overstate the case - Overstated question places some emphasis on on some aspect of the topic - Words to avoid in questionnaire - All - Always - Never - Ever - Every - Anybody - Pay attention to whether the question can apply to everyone or not - Why do you like fast food? - Assumes that respondent likes fast food already - Built in assumptions - How old is your wife?
- Assumes gender - Understanding the question - Does target market understand the words in the question? - Will all respondents interpret the question the same way? - Interpret the way you intended? - Do not use complex sentence structure - Watch out for different interpretations of the question - Minimize understanding - Ask only one question at a time - Make the question specific - Use simple language - Test your questions - Knowing the answer - Time period? - Proxy reporting - Memory errors - Estimation errors - Do they have an attitude - Minimizing respondent errors - Qualify respondents for knowledge - Use sensible time frame - Provide memory cues - Choose wording of question properly - Can you tell me your age? → answer is yes - People do not want to look dumb - Lack of accuracy in question - One way to make respondents feel less stupid is if they were given a “no answer” option - Incentives to participate in market research - Doing something for the participant to increase probability of respondents responding -
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- Winter '15
- Marketing, researcher