socialpschobjectives-CH 3,4

That should have no effect or insufficiently affected

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that should have no effect, or insufficiently affected by information that should affect judgment o Representativeness- person evaluates the probability of an uncertain event or sample of events by the degree to which it o Conjunction fallacy- person overestimates the probability of compound events (e.g., It is cold and It is raining) as higher than the probability of each single event (It is cold or It is raining) o Base Rate fallacy- tendency to ignore or under use base-rate information, and instead to be influenced by the distinctive features of the case being judged o Hindsight Bias- o Illusory Correlations- tendency to overestimate the association of two characteristics or events o Simulation- tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which one can imagine (or mentally simulate) it 2. Define “confirmation bias.” Explain the three bases of the confirmation bias. Conformation Bias- tendency to notice, search for, and give greater weight to information that confirms one’s beliefs—and to ignore or misinterpret information that disconfirms them o Effects on subjective experiences o Biased information processing o Self Fulfilling prophecies 3. Define placebo and nocebo effects. Explain two mechanisms of the placebo effect (how and why it works). o Placebo effect- a person believes that a substance is therapeutic and this faith has a psychological consequence that ameliorates symptoms o Mechanisms: 1. Beliefs and expectations in target and in those who administer 2. Conditioning- Expectancies based on previous experience lead body to release endorphins or other chemicals in anticipation of outcomes of
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placebo 3. Insular Cortex- Area modulates sensory experiences such as taste, emotions and the physiological state of the body 4. Amygdala- Suggests it governs input of visceral information, including status of the immune system during learning o Nocebo effect- A negative attitude or expectation leads to harm or another undesirable outcome. 4. What is the “decoy” effect? o The tendency to like an alternative better when there is a slightly less attractive similar alternative 5. What is loss aversion, and how did it contribute to the Tenerife disaster? o Decisions tend to be affected more by potential losses than by potential gains o Loss aversion contributed by making people so afraid of the terrorists they ended up being so distracted trying to make sure everyone was safe the planes collided 6. Be able to calculate how likely it is that a person who tests positive for a disease actually has that disease, given specific false positives or false negatives, and the base rate of the disease in the population. 1. Distinguish between the characteristics of automatic and controlled thinking. Discuss  the conditions under which we are more likely to engage in controlled, as opposed to  automatic, processing.
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