How do i know he has a learning disability because he

This preview shows page 188 - 192 out of 469 pages.

How do I know he has a learning disability? Because he can’t read (effect now translated into cause)
Sometimes, people refer to “reinforcement” as a circular concept—it is not!Example:Robbie’s studying behavior increased when he earned points for studying.Cause (earning points) and effect (increased study behavior) are differentPoints can be manipulated as an independent variable to observe effects on studyingThe Role of Antecedent StimuliCaveat #1: Reinforcement does not increase behavior under all conditionsThe temporal relation betweenAntecedent variablesResponsesConsequencesis important!These antecedent variables become discriminative stimuli(SDs)Thus, the response is more likely to occur in the future in the presence of these stimuliThe Discriminated OperantAKA “The Three-term Contingency The Role of Antecedent StimuliCaveat #2: Reinforcement depends on motivation The SDwill only signal the response if the individual is motivated to engage in that response
Motivating Operations (MOs)Alter the reinforcing effectiveness of stimuli, and thusAlter the momentary frequency of responses reinforced by those stimuliMotivating OperationsEstablishing Operations (EO)Increases the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcerUsually involves decreased access to the stimulus (deprivation)Abolishing Operations (AO)Decreases the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcerUsually involves having increased access to the stimulus (satiation)The Four-term ContingencyThe consideration of MOs are important in relation to the three-term contingencyQuestions About ReinforcementDoes a person have to be aware that a response is being reinforced for it to increase?NO! The effect is automatic.Are certain behaviors susceptible to reinforcement and others are not?
NO! The only relevant property is the temporal relation between the response and the consequence.Immediacy of ReinforcementIt is critical that the consequence is delivered immediately following the target responseProblems with delays to reinforcementOther behaviors occur during the delayThe behavior temporarily closest to the presentation of the reinforce will be strengthenedDelayed ReinforcementDoes not necessarily reinforce the target behavior; rather influences itInstructional Control/Rule FollowingRule: Verbal description of a behavioral contingencyCan allow delayed consequences to influence behavior“Rule-governed Behavior”IndicatorsNo immediate consequence apparentResponse-consequence delay > 30 sLarge increase in frequency of the behavior occurs following one instance of reinforcementNo consequence for the behavior exists (including no automatic reinforcement), but rule doesSuperstitious BehaviorOccurs when reinforcement “accidentally ” follows a behavior that did not produce the reinforcement

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture