Hisher kneecap perceives it meaning that the brain

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his/her kneecap) perceives it (meaning that the brain became conscious of the fact). 30. How is it possible that a person with a spinal cord severed at the cervical level is still able to perform the patellar reflex? The reflex arc only depends on the integrity of the fibers at a single spinal level. In the reflex arc, the motor response to the stimulus is automatic and involuntary and does not depend upon the passage of information to the brain. Therefore, it happens even if the spinal cord is damaged at other levels.1 31. How does poliomyelitis affect neural transmission within the spinal cord?
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The poliovirus is parasitic to and destroys spinal motor neurons, causing the paralysis of the muscles that depend on these neurons. Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems 32. Concerning volition, how can the reactions of the nervous system be classified? The efferences (reactions) of the nervous system can be classified into voluntary, when they are the result of volition, and involuntary, when they are not consciously controlled. Examples of reactions triggered by volition are the movements of limbs, the tongue and respiratory muscles. Examples of involuntary efferences are those that command peristaltic movements, the heartbeat and arterial wall muscles. Skeletal striated muscles are voluntarily contracted; whereas cardiac striated and smooth muscles are involuntarily contracted. 33. What are the functional divisions of the nervous system? Functionally, the nervous system can be divided into the somatic nervous system and the visceral nervous system. The somatic nervous system includes the central and peripheral structures that constitute the voluntary control of efferences. Central and peripheral structures that participate in the control
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of the vegetative (unconscious) functions of the body are included in the concept of the visceral nervous system. The efferent portion of the visceral nervous system is called the autonomic nervous system. 34. What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system? The autonomic nervous system is divided into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system includes the nerves that extend from the ganglia of the neural chains lateral to the spine (near the spinal cord) and therefore are located at a distance from the tissues they innervate. The central and peripheral neurons associated with those neurons are also a part of the sympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system is made up of nerves and central or peripheral neurons related to the visceral ganglia, neural ganglia located near the tissues they innervate. The Nervous System Review - Image Diversity: the sympathetiic nervous system the parasympathetic nervous system 35. What is the antagonism between sympathetic and parasympathetic neural actions?
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