Spatially resolved srxrf was adapted for the analyses

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Spatially resolved SRXRF was adapted for the analyses of ancient silver- point drawings, a graphical technique very much appreciated in the Renais- sance, by Reiche et al. [586]. The amount of the deposited silver on the paper does not exceed some hundreds of microgram per square centimetre. Thus, a very sensitive analytical and non-destructive method was required for the analyses of these drawings. First investigations of several sheets of Albrecht D¨urer’s famous sketchbook that he drew during his journey in the Nether- lands in 1520/21 confirm that all drawings but one were made with the same silverpoint containing about 11 wt% of Cu. Beside Ag and Cu, Hg could be detected in the silver marks. Its presence is probably due to contamination from the atmosphere. Further analyses on silverpoint drawings of other artists
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694 O. Hahn et al as Jan van Eyck or Hans Holbein the Elder are in progress in order to get further insights in this graphical technique. Milazzo and Cicardi [587] analysed the Au alloy of the famous Crown of Monza, Holy Crown, or Corona Ferrea with a portable device using a ra- dioactive 241 Am X-ray source. It was expected to facilitate chronological and historical interpretations of the objects from the Monza Cathedral. These investigations also illustrate general quantification problems of the chemical composition of irregular objects with a non-flat surface with portable instru- ments. Using a standard related quantification, the metal composition could be determined with a standard deviation of 2%. Pernicka et al. [588] analysed the Au inlays of the Nebra sky disk, the oldest representation of the sky dat- ing from early bronze age (end of seventeenth – first half of sixteenth century BC) found in Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) in 1999, by SRXRF. These investi- gations showed differences in the Sn content of the Au inlays and allowed the reconstruction of different fabrication steps of the ornamentation of the disk. Adriens et al. [589] analysed nine powder samples originating from the archaeometallurgical cassiterite (SnO 2 ) site in G¨ oltepe, 100 km north of the Mediterranean coastal city, Tarsus, dating from the Early Bronze Age. The aim of this study was to determine if the hypothesis of mining and smelting of Sn at this site was realistic at such an early time and if it was perhaps associated with gold winning. Bulk analyses by XRF and photoelectron spec- troscopy allowed determination of the sample Sn content and Sn oxidation state, respectively. The distinction between unprocessed ground ore material, residues from an ore concentration process and waste material such as slag was possible. This investigation showed that only high Sn-containing materials were selectively transported to G¨ oltepe for ore dressing and smelting.
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  • Spring '14
  • MichaelDudley

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