gradually “tails off” asymptotically, [email protected] can catch the Long Tail effect [ 1 ], providing similar or higher computing capabilities than commercial providers’ data centers, by grouping small computing resources from many single contributors. In the following, we demonstrate how it is possible to realize all these aims through the [email protected] paradigm. In Section 2, we describe the functional architecture of the [email protected] infrastructure, and in Section 3, we characterize the blocks implementing the functions previously identified into the [email protected] core structure. Section 4 concludes the chapter by recapitulating our work and discussing challenges and future work. 6.2 [email protected] Overview The idea behind [email protected] is to reuse “domestic” computing resources to build voluntary contributors’ Clouds that are interoperable and, moreover, interoperate with other foreign, and also commercial, Cloud infrastructures. With [email protected],
97 6 Open and Interoperable Clouds: The [email protected] Way anyone can experience the power of Cloud computing, both actively by providing his/her own resources and services, and passively by submitting his/her applications and requirements. 6.2.1 Issues, Challenges, and Open Problems Ian Foster summarizes the computing paradigm of the future as follows [ 9 ]: “... we will need to support on-demand provisioning and configuration of integrated ‘virtual systems’ providing the precise capabilities needed by an end user. We will need to define protocols that allow users and service providers to discover and hand off demands to other providers, to monitor and manage their reservations, and arrange payment. We will need tools for managing both the underlying resources and the resulting distributed computations. We will need the centralized scale of today’s Cloud utilities, and the distribution and interoperability of today’s Grid facilities .... ” We share all these requirements, but in a slightly different way: we want to actively involve users into such a new form of computing, allowing them to create their own interoperable Clouds. In other words, we believe that it is possible to export, apply, and adapt the “@home” philosophy to the Cloud-computing paradigm. In this way, by merging Volunteer and Cloud computing, a new para- digm can be created: [email protected] . This new computing paradigm gives back the power and control to users, who can decide how to manage their resources/services in a global, geographically distributed context. They can voluntarily sustain scien- tific projects by freely placing their resources/services at the scientific research centers’ disposal, or can earn money by selling their resources to Cloud-computing providers in a pay-per-use/share context. Therefore, in [email protected], both the commercial/business and volunteer/ scientific viewpoints coexist: in the former case, the end-user orientation of Cloud is extended to a collaborative two-way Cloud in which users can buy and/or sell
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- Spring '16
- Mr Gebre