Components are separated by the differences in speeds

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components are separated by the differences in speeds that they travel. distillation boiling point and volatility Separates two miscible liquids with different boiling points. The liquids are separated by heating the mixture to the lower of the two liquids' boiling points. The vapors are then transferred into a cooling apparatus called a condenser to recollect the separated liquid. If the difference in boiling points is less than 25 K, a fractionating column is fitted between the distillation flask and the condenser to better separate the liquids. evaporation boiling point and volatility Separates a solute from a solution by evaporating the solvent. The solution is slowly heated in an evaporating dish until all the solvent evaporates. extraction solubility Removes a substance from a mixture based on its greater solubility in a given solvent. The resulting solutions are immiscible and can be separated based of their relative densities. decantation density Separates a solid from a liquid. The liquid is carefully poured off of a relatively dense solid and the solid is left on the bottom of the container. sublimation volatility Separates a substance that changes directly from solid into gaseous state from a mixture.
The mixture is heated until the substance fully sublimates. The vapors are cooled to isolate the sublimated substance. fractional crystallization solubility Separates substances based on their solubility. A solution of a mixture is allowed to crystallize for example by lowering the temperature of the solution. The crystals formed first will contain mostly the least soluble substance. Figure 2. Separation Techniques and Related Physical Property About This Lab In this lab, you will use various separation techniques to isolate the components of a mixture. You will start with a mixture of sand (SiO 2 ), sodium chloride (NaCl), and ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) and explore the following three separation techniques: sublimation decantation evaporation You will separate the components of this mixture and determine the mass and mass percentage of each component in the mixture. To do this, you will first sublimate NH 4 Cl. The remaining solid will be a mixture of NaCl and SiO 2 . You will then dissolve NaCl in water and decant the mixture to remove the insoluble SiO 2 . Procedures Part 1: Separate the Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) Take an evaporating dish from the Containers shelf and place it onto the workbench. Take a balance from the Instruments shelf and place it on the workbench. Move the evaporating dish onto the balance and record the mass of the empty
evaporating dish in your Lab Notes . Remember to press Save Notes . Take the powder mixture A from the Materials shelf and add 10.000 g to the evaporating dish. Record the total mass of the evaporating dish plus the powder mixture in your Lab Notes .Note: In a classroom laboratory, you would remove the container from the balance before you add any chemicals or solutions. Filling the container separately

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