1 if the future and the past do exist i want to know

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[1] If the future and the past do exist I want to know where they are. I may not yet be capable of such knowledge, but at least I know that, Neither [2] wherever they are, they are not there as future or past, but as present. Conclusion For [3] if, wherever they are, they are future, they do not yet exist; Premise [4] if past they not longer exist. Premise So [5] wherever they are and whatever they are, it is only by being present that they are. Conclusion St. Augustine Confessions , Bk 11, Ch. 14, No. 8 19. [1] Either it is an accident that I choose to act as I do or it is not. Premise [2] If it is an accident, then it is merely a matter of chance that I did not choose otherwise; Premise and [3] if it is merely a matter of chance that I did not choose otherwise, it is surely irrational to hold me morally responsible for choosing as I did. Conclusion But [4] if it is not an accident that I choose to do one thing rather than another, then presumably there is some causally explanation of my choice: Premise and [5] in that case we are led back to determinism. Conclusion A.J. Ayer Philosophical Essays , p. 275 20. Philonous: [1] The ideas formed by the imagination are faint and the indistinct; they have besides an entire dependence on the will. Premise But [2] the ideas perceived by sense, that is, real things, are more vivid and clear, and being imprinted on the mind by a spirit distinct from us, have not a like dependence on our will. Premise [3] There is therefore no danger of confounding these with the foregoing: and there is as little of confounding them with the visions of a dream, which are dim, irregular, and confused. Conclusion George Berkeley Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous, Works , II, p. 235 21. [1] On the one hand I have a clear and distinct idea of myself, in so far as I am simply a thinking non- extended thing; and on the other hand Premise [2] I have a distinct idea of body, in so far as this is simply an extended, non-thinking thing. Premise And accordingly, it is certain that [3] I am really distinct from my body, Conclusion and [4] can exist without it. Conclusion Rene Descartes Sixth Meditation, II, p. 54 22. [1] There is a great difference between the mind and the body, inasmuch as [2] the body is by its very nature always divisible, while the mind is utterly indivisible. For [3] when I consider the mind, or myself in so far as I am merely a thinking thing, I am unable to distinguish any parts within myself; I understand myself to be something quite single and complete. [4] By contrast, there is no corporeal or extended thing that I can think 2
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of which in my thought I cannot easily divide into parts; and this very fact makes me understand that it is divisible. Rene Descartes Sixth Meditation, Philosophical Writings , trans. Cottingham et al., II, p. 59 23. [1] The most barbarous and the most fantastic rites and the strangest myths translate some human need, some aspect of life, either individual or social…In reality, then, [2] there are no religions which are false. [3] All are true in their own fashion; [4] all answer, though in different ways, to the given conditions of human existence.
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