Fluid_Lyte_LectureFinal_2012

Hypercalcemia causes of hypercalcemia increased

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Hypercalcemia
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Causes of Hypercalcemia Increased intestinal absorption Excessive vitamin D Excessive calcium Milk-alkali syndrome Decreased elimination Thiazide diuretics Lithium therapy Increased bone resorption Increased PTH level Malignant neoplasm Prolonged immobilization
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Hypercalcemia Manifestations > 10.5 mg/dl Renal Polyuria, polydipsia Signs of kidney stones GI Anorexia, N/V constipation Neuromuscular Muscle weakness Ataxia, loss of muscle tone Skeletal Osteopenia Osteoporosis CNS Lethary, stupor, coma Personality changes CV Hypertension Shortening QT interval AV block on EKG
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PHOSPHATE
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Causes of Hypophosphatemia Decreased intestinal absorption Antacids Severe diarrhea Lack of vitamin D Increased renal elimination Alkalosis Hyperparathyroidism DKA Renal tubular absorption defects Malnutrition & intracellular shifts Alcoholism PN Recovery from malnutrition Administration of insulin in DKA treatment
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Hypophosphatemia Manifestations < 2.5 mg/dl Neural Intention tremor Ataxia Paresthesias Confusion, stupor, coma seizures Musculoskeletal Muscle weakness Joint stiffness Osteomalacia Bone pain Blood Hemolytic anemia Platelet dysfunction w/ bleeding disorders
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Causes of Hyperphosphatemia Acute phosphate overload Laxatives, enemas IV phosphate supplementation Impaired elimination Kidney failure hypoparathyroidism Transcellular shifts Massive trauma Heat stroke Seizures Rhabdomyolysis Tumor lysis syndrome Potassium deficiency
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Hyperphosphatemia Manifestations > 4.5 mg/dl Neuromuscular Paresthesias Tetany CV Hypotension Cardiac dysrhythmias
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MAGNESIUM
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Causes of Hypomagnesemia Impaired intake or absorption Alcoholism Malnutrition, starvation Malabsorption Sm bowel bypass PN High dietary Ca w/o Mg Increased losses Diuretic therapy Hyperparathyroidism Hyperaldosteronism DKA Mg-wasting kidney dz
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Hypomagnesemia Manifestations <1.8 mg/dl Neuromuscular Personality change Athetoid movements Nystagmus Tetany Positive Babinski CV Tachycardia Hypertension Cardiac dysrhythmia
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Causes of Hypermagnesemia Excessive intake IV administration Use of magnesium containing medications Decreased elimination Kidney disease Glomerulonephritis Tubulointerstitial dz AKI
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Hypermagnesemia Manifestations >2.7 mg/dl Neuromuscular Lethargy Hyporeflexia Confusion Coma CV Hypotension Cardiac dysrhythmia Cardiac arrest
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Practice Questions A patient presents with a magnesium of 1.1 mEq/L and a potassium of 3.0 mEq/L. Which of the following disorders could have caused this?
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