assumed that due to their smaller vehicle size minibus and taxi drivers require 12 trips per day45For each line the estimated number of passengers per year equals to the capacity (63) * the occupancyrate * 2 (return trip) * number of return trips a day * operating days a week * 52 (weeks).
68on that line to make enough profit to stay in business46. When the number of jobs displaced byMMT is calculated, an employment multiplier is estimated. This equals 1.05 jobs per vehicle fortaxis and motor taxis, and 2.05 jobs per vehicle for minibus and other coach operators. Thelatter always have one driver and one conductor or “driver’s mate” per vehicle, while taxis andmotor taxis only have a driver. It is assumed that transport operators of all types have anoverhead of administrative and repair workers of 1 per 20 vehicles, or 0.05 per vehicle.Based on information provided by MMT, the coach companies VIP and STC, and both deskresearch and field research by the local consultant, estimates of the average fuel efficiency ofthe different types of vehicles were made. These estimates of the amount of fuel per kilometretraveled were then converted into fuel per kilometre per passenger. For this calculation thenumber of passengers per vehicle was estimated. Table A6 provides the assumptions used,and the resulting estimates.Table A6: Estimation of Fuel Efficiency for All Types of VehiclesFuel (litre) per kmNumber ofPassengers PerVehicleFuel per km PerPassengerMMT bus0.334630.005Other coach0.848630.014Minibus0.28380.035Taxi / private car0.23520.118Commercial orprivate motorcycle0.0510.05Source: own researchIt was assumed that other coach operators have the same passenger capacity as MMT, namely63 passengers per vehicle. Minibuses transport on average eight passengers per vehicle,taking into account both the capacity of the vehicle and the occupancy rate. Taxis and privatecars are assumed to carry on average two customers per vehicle at all times, which can beconsidered a conservative estimate given that single customers are also not uncommon.Finally motorcycles are only able to hold a single customer.Besides effects for specific bus lines, tentative estimates have been made of the combinedeffect of all MMT bus services. For making these estimates it is necessary to assume that thesix lines studied through the survey are representative for MMT’s national bus services. Theprecise assumption is that Accra-Adenta and Accra-Nungua are together representative forMMT’s 97 intra-city lines; that Swedru-Accra and Begoro-Accra are together representative forMMT’s 94 Rural-Urban lines; and that Tamale-Damongo and Kumasi-Accra are togetherrepresentative for MMT’s 137 inter-city lines. These extrapolations are tentative, and should beinterpreted with due care. The number of passengers per type of line was given by MMT forthe year 2013, and hence did not have to be estimated. Table A7 shows the resultingestimates of wage and market income for the three line types, which sums up to the total forGhana as a whole.