# Assumed that due to their smaller vehicle size

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assumed that due to their smaller vehicle size minibus and taxi drivers require 12 trips per day 45 For each line the estimated number of passengers per year equals to the capacity (63) * the occupancy rate * 2 (return trip) * number of return trips a day * operating days a week * 52 (weeks).
68 on that line to make enough profit to stay in business 46 . When the number of jobs displaced by MMT is calculated, an employment multiplier is estimated. This equals 1.05 jobs per vehicle for taxis and motor taxis, and 2.05 jobs per vehicle for minibus and other coach operators. The latter always have one driver and one conductor or “driver’s mate” per vehicle, while taxis and motor taxis only have a driver. It is assumed that transport operators of all types have an overhead of administrative and repair workers of 1 per 20 vehicles, or 0.05 per vehicle. Based on information provided by MMT, the coach companies VIP and STC, and both desk research and field research by the local consultant, estimates of the average fuel efficiency of the different types of vehicles were made. These estimates of the amount of fuel per kilometre traveled were then converted into fuel per kilometre per passenger. For this calculation the number of passengers per vehicle was estimated. Table A6 provides the assumptions used, and the resulting estimates. Table A6: Estimation of Fuel Efficiency for All Types of Vehicles Fuel (litre) per km Number of Passengers Per Vehicle Fuel per km Per Passenger MMT bus 0.334 63 0.005 Other coach 0.848 63 0.014 Minibus 0.283 8 0.035 Taxi / private car 0.235 2 0.118 Commercial or private motorcycle 0.05 1 0.05 Source: own research It was assumed that other coach operators have the same passenger capacity as MMT, namely 63 passengers per vehicle. Minibuses transport on average eight passengers per vehicle, taking into account both the capacity of the vehicle and the occupancy rate. Taxis and private cars are assumed to carry on average two customers per vehicle at all times, which can be considered a conservative estimate given that single customers are also not uncommon. Finally motorcycles are only able to hold a single customer. Besides effects for specific bus lines, tentative estimates have been made of the combined effect of all MMT bus services. For making these estimates it is necessary to assume that the six lines studied through the survey are representative for MMT’s national bus services. The precise assumption is that Accra-Adenta and Accra-Nungua are together representative for MMT’s 97 intra-city lines; that Swedru-Accra and Begoro-Accra are together representative for MMT’s 94 Rural-Urban lines; and that Tamale-Damongo and Kumasi-Accra are together representative for MMT’s 137 inter-city lines. These extrapolations are tentative, and should be interpreted with due care. The number of passengers per type of line was given by MMT for the year 2013, and hence did not have to be estimated. Table A7 shows the resulting estimates of wage and market income for the three line types, which sums up to the total for Ghana as a whole.