Inflects person and number additional relations

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inflects person and number = additional relations) Japanese, Chinese: pronouns hardly ever used (once a participant is introduced, continuity of reference is signaled by omitting the subjects of following clauses)
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Substitution and ellipsis : Arabic: prefers pronominal reference above all
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Conjunction Languages differ tremendously in the type of conjunction they prefer (provide information into the whole logic of discourse); reflects the rhetoric of the text and controls its interpretation German: many subordinations and complex structures, many conjunctions (more than in English Chinese, Japanese: simple, shorter structures and mark relations explicitly where possible English: many conjunctions (and presents information in relatively small chunks) Arabic: small number of conjunctions, prefers punctuation instead (and large chunks)
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Lexical cohesion Languages differ in the number of lexical repetitions they normally tolerate Arabic: repetition is more dominant in Arabic than in English (differing lexical networks: reiterations and collocations Greek also tolerates repetition more than English
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(7) Rejection of the concept of equivalence the concept of equivalence or identity is generally related to the SL text, trying to assess whether the translation and the SL text are of equal value Gideon Toury (1980) directed the attention to the TL: the text of the translation must function in a TL context, and so it should meet the genre and stylistic requirements of the TL Important: - equivalence to the SL text ( =“adequacy”), - its ability to meet the requirements presented by the TL (=“appropriacy”) - the TL reader (=“acceptability”) Mary Snell-Hornby (1988) integrates the Lic and the literary approach: the concept of equivalence is cannot be a central category in translation studies; it can do harm by suggesting an atomistic view, producing the false illusion of symmetry between Ls (e.g., the etymology of the English term equivalence and the German term Äquivalenz -- even these two terms cannot be regarded as truly “equivalent”)
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The importance of the concept of equivalence research on equivalence has great theoretical significance: as a result of translation totally different Lic structures may enter into equivalence relations, and without translation their identical functions would never be detected provides data for research into the relationship between form and function the practical significance of the concept: it may provide scientifically sound criteria (vs. intuition) for translation criticism (equivalence appears in various degrees, and translations on the market cannot always be regarded as communicatively equivalent to the original texts) ***
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