Movies use as a propaganda vehicle is severely

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"[Movies'] use as a propaganda vehicle is severely restricted by several factors: 1. public used to high-budget production values 2. public expects stars in fictional stories (little acceptance of anything else.) 3. it's hard to break into the distribution system 6
4. video's lower cost makes it a more attractive propaganda vehicle "[Movies'] effectiveness as a propaganda medium is largely limited to the values and ideologies that are an integral part of the plot structure." Radio Is the primary source of international white propaganda (source is known; audience expects different [political] viewpoints, unlike with movies.) Radio Moscow, French international broadcasts, prompted BBC to propose to the Imperial Conference that a worldwide service by established to maintain the links of the empire. Germany, the League of Nations, followed suit. The U.S., for a time, steered clear. Hitler & Nazis made use of radio, using music to attract listeners. Italy & Japan also got involved in such broadcasting. WWII saw large expansion of international radio services. The U.S. began the Voice of America (under the guidance of the Office of War Information (OWI). The commencement of the Cold War assured an ongoing role for VOA, overcoming U.S. anxiety about propaganda activities. The Soviet Union stepped-up its efforts; this was matched by the Western Europeans and the U.S. (Radio Free Europe; Radio Liberation (RL). Current International Radio Propaganda There are several kinds of international broadcasting systems: 1. national broadcasting organizations (state funded or supported by politically or religiously active citizens) - this is of the most importance for propaganda 2. commercial shortwave stations; many of which feature music (some propaganda role in the international transmission of popular culture) 3. groups promulgating various Christian doctrines (Vatican Radio, Adventist World radio, World Radio Gospel Hour (also some stations with Islamic broadcasts) Most shortwave sets are used by those outside of the U.S. There is not a deep tradition of listening to shortwave by Americans. For this reason, unlike in some countries, there has never been an attempt to jam the signal of foreign broadcasts in the U.S. In the past, the main attraction for many to listen to shortwave transmissions was timely, accurate, objective information not otherwise supplied their nation's media. The BBC had a reputation for being fair and unbiased. The VOA has a fairly good reputation in this regard as well (it stimulates domestic political battle when the VOA or similar outlets are attempted to be used for more partisan purposes.) If the message is too much at odds with what the audience believes or suspects to be true, then the result is less effective. 7
“The rise of the Internet has significantly changed the world of international radio broadcasting, as an increasing number of broadcasters have ceased their shortwave transmission in favor of broadcasting directly over the World Wide Web…Nonetheless, shortwave listening is still very common and active in developing countries such as parts of Africa and Asia.” U.S. Government Propaganda Agencies 1994 - the International Broadcasting Act consolidated all nonmilitary, U.s. government

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