incorporation of geographic information systems allows public health data to be

Incorporation of geographic information systems

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incorporation of geographic information systems allows public health data to bemapped to specific locations that may indicate an immediate need for intervention18. HITECH Act of 2011, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)two sets of standards established as regulatory requirements by the Office of theNational Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC, 2013a) to helpproviders meet the meaningful use (MU) of electronic health records (EHRs).which set the 2014 deadline for implementing EHRs and provided the impetus forHIE initiatives.19. Meaningful useprimary purpose of the MU standards is to ensure that the EHRs across the nationmeet an adequate standard for performance and that this standard increases incomplexity over time to meet the expanded needs of the nationThe first standard defined the MU of EHRs, and the second specified how EHRsare to be developed and certified to meet the MU criteriaThe Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) coupled this infrastructureregulation with an EHR incentive program to encourage providers and hospitalsto adopt and implement certified technology96% of U.S. hospitals have a certified EHR, and as of 2015, more than 87% ofproviders have adopted an EHR in their practice Phase 1 was focused on the implementation of certified EHRs meeting basicrequirements, such as electronic exchange of information through ePrescribing(electronic prescriptions) and the ability to capture and report quality metrics.
Phase 2 of MU focuses on consumer engagement, also termed “patient-centeredness,” and increased the capacity of the certified product to capture andexchange data.Phase 3 for eligible professionals has transitioned to be included in the value-based programs under the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act20. Information literacy competency standards for nursingforms the basis for lifelong learning, serving as a commonality among all learningenvironments, disciplines, and levels of educationresponse to changing perceptions of how information is created, evaluated, andused.21. TIGER-based Nursing Informatics competencies modelestablished specific recommendations for schools of nursing to prepare nursingstudents and practicing nurses to engage fully in digital healthcareidentified three components for the TIGER nursing informatics competenciesmodel: (a) basic computer competencies, (b) information literacy, and (c)information management.

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