The CPSS has demonstrated good psychometric properties Foa et al 2001 including

The cpss has demonstrated good psychometric

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The CPSS has demonstrated good psychometric properties (Foa et al. 2001 ), including in research with Latino school children (Kataoka et al. 2003 ). In the current sample, the CPSS total (Time 1 and Time 2 α =0.91), re-experiencing (Time 1 English α =0.85, Spanish α =0.81; Time 2 English α =0.83, Spanish α =0.83) avoidance (Time 1 English α =0.80, Spanish α =0.79; Time 2 English α =0.79, Spanish α =0.86), and arousal (Time 1 English α =0.73, Spanish α =0.72; Time 2 English α =0.75, Spanish α =0.76) scales demonstrated good internal consistency. Procedure A total of 331 students from 10 6 th grade and 2 mixed-grade homeroom classrooms were recruited for participation. Research staff invited students to participate and distributed a letter and consent form for students to deliver to their caregiver. Students who returned a signed consent form, regardless of whether consent was provided on the form, received a small incentive (e.g., a pencil or snack) and classrooms with at least 95 % of students returning a consent form earned a classroom reward. A total of 273 (82.5 %) parents returned a signed form and of these, 170 (62.3 %) parents provided consent for their child to participate in the study. All students also provided assent to participate. This represents an overall recruitment rate of 51.4 %. Because some students withdrew from the school before data collection began, the overall sample included 167 students at Time 1 and 161 students at the Time 2 assessment 6 months later (96.41 % retention rate). Given that exposure to trauma is a pre-requisite for posttraumatic stress disorder, analyses in the current study focus on the 148 students (91.9 % of the overall sample) who reported at least some exposure to violence between the Time 1 and Time 2 assessments. Study measures were administered to groups of students, with trained research staff reading all instructions and items aloud to the group and students providing individual responses privately by marking their response on the survey itself. Additional research staff were available to provide individual assistance to students as needed. During the Time 1 assessment, children completed measures of behavioral inhibition/activation and symptoms of PTSD and received a $10 merchandise gift card as an incentive. During the Time 2 assessment, children provided reports of exposure to vio- lence since the Time 1 assessment and current symptoms of PTSD. They received one $15 merchandise gift card for participation at Time 2. All study materials were available in English and Spanish and students had the option of deciding which language they wanted to complete measures in. Most participants elected to complete measures in English (82.4 %), while 17.6 % elected to complete measures in Spanish. Spanish versions of mate- rials without an existing translation were created through the recommended procedure of translation, back-translation, and subsequent reconciliation of discrepancies (Marín and Marín 1991 ). All study procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of California, Los Angeles.
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