2.4.2 Project PhasesA project may be divided into any number of phases. A project phase is a collection of logically related project activities that culminates in the completion of one or more deliverables. Project phases are used when the nature of the work to be performed is unique to a portion of the project, and are typically linked to the development of a specific major deliverable. A phase may emphasize processes from a particular Project Management Process Group, but it is likely that most or all processes will be executed in some form in each phase. Project phases typically are completed sequentially, but can overlap in some project situations. Different phases typically have a different duration or effort. The high-level nature of project phases makes them an element of the project life cycle.The phase structure allows the project to be segmented into logical subsets for ease of management, planning, and control. The number of phases, the need for phases, and the degree of control applied depend on the size, complexity, and potential impact of the project. Regardless of the number of phases comprising a project, all phases have similar characteristics:sThe work has a distinct focus that differs from any other phase. This often involves different organizations, locations, and skill sets.sAchieving the primary deliverable or objective of the phase requires controls or processes unique to the phase or its activities. The repetition of processes across all five Process Groups, as described in Section 3, provides an additional degree of control and defines the boundaries of the phase.sThe closure of a phase ends with some form of transfer or hand-off of the work product produced as the phase deliverable. This phase end represents a natural point to reassess the activities underway and to change or terminate the project if necessary. This point may be referred to as a stage gate, milestone, phase review, phase gate or kill point. In many cases, the closure of a phase is required to be approved in some form before it can be considered closed.Licensed To: Christopher D'Souza PMI MemberID: 403800This copy is a PMI Member benefit, not for distribution, sale, or reproduction.