Bio Exam Notes Section 3.docx

Here then helping behaviour toward non kin is not

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balanced by the fitness gain of also helping kin at the same time. Here then, helping behaviour  toward non-kin is not strongly (at or all) selected against. Helping kin (kin selection) is strongly favored perpetually, and the selection mechanism for  identifying kin in our ancestors was presumably constant contact/familiarity. This can explain  occasionally puzzling selflessness- for example, the soldier who falls on a grenade to save  comrades even though they are genetically unrelated. Hence, while most of the time, in most  people, helping kin is much more conspicuous than helping non-kin, the latter keeps re-emerging as an occasional byproduct of strong kin-selection (and sometimes as anomalous cases, e.g.  Mother Teresa.) (14) In BIOL350 we considered arguments proposing that war could be interpreted largely  as a product of biological evolution. Describe the arguments in support of this view. Biological evolution: o Humans developed culture and the groups 'us' vs. 'them'. There was increased pressure to  protect the in-group to support one's legacy drive.  o Competition for resources and mates to survive and pass on genes through offspring,  encouraging war so that one was more dominant and fit to survive than other groups or  individuals.  o As conflict became more common, those who were successful survived and passed on the genes that promoted conflict to maintain dominance and obtain resources.
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o Genes that supported conflict and war evolved in humans because they led to increased  survival and dominance in those that possessed these genes, and propagated them on into  future generations.
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