The process through which children acquire standards

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The process through which children acquire standards of behavior that are considered ethical within their culture Theoretical Perspectives on Moral Development include: o Behaviorism o Social Cognitive Theory o Cognitive Developmental Theory Integrating three Key Cognitive Developmental Perspectives: Moral Reasoning Perspective Taking Skills Reasoning about Prosocial Behaviors Moral Reasoning (L. Kohlberg) Focus is on the development of Concepts of Justice Stages reflect three ways in which the self relates to society’s moral expectations: o Stage 1: moral rules are external to the individual o Stage 2: moral rules are internalized o Stage 3: internal principles are clearly distinguished from external Evaluation of the theory and Criticisms o o o o o Perspective Taking (R. Selman)
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To behave morally one must be able to engage in perspective taking (i.e., put oneself in another person’s place in order to understand that person’s feelings, thoughts, and actions) Implications for school learning: Acting in Prosocial Ways (N. Eisenberg) Children who are empathic and demonstrate high levels of prosocial reasoning are more likely to be helpful to others Prosocial reasoning develops stages. The stages represent the movement toward internalization of prosocial values Promoting Moral Development
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