It means that while in general, every discreditable imputation publicly made is deemed false, because every man is presumed innocent until his guilt is judicially proved, and every false imputation is deemed malicious, nevertheless, when the discreditable imputation is directed against a public person in his public capacity, it is not necessarily actionable unless it be false allegations of fact or comment based on a false supposition . If the comment is an expression of opinion, based on facts, then it is immaterial that the opinion happens to be mistaken as long as it might reasonably be inferred from the facts. (Borjal v. CA, 501 SCRA 1) Enrolled Bill Doctrine* The enrolled bill is conclusive upon the courts not only as regards the provisions thereof but also its due enactment in observance of the principle of separation of powers. * ENROLLED BILL, defined: one which has been duly introduced, finally passed by both houses of Congress, signed by the proper offices of each, approved by the President and filed by the Secretary of the State. Regalian Doctrine In public law, a distinction is made between imperium and dominium . Imperium is the government authority possessed by the State expressed in the concept of sovereignty. Dominium is the capacity of the State to own or acquire property. Dominium , which was the foundation for the early Spanish decrees embracing the feudal theory of jura regalia that all lands were held from the Crown, is also the foundation of the first sentence of section 2. As adopted in a republican system, however, the medieval concept of jura regalia has been stripped of regalian overtones; ownership is vested in the State , not in the head of State—be he President or Prime Minister. (Bernas Reviewer citing Lee Hong Kok v. David, 48 SCRA 372,377) Art. XII, sec. 2 of the Constitution states: “All lands of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries, forests or timber, wildlife, flora and fauna, and other natural resources are owned by the State. With the exception of agricultural lands, all other natural resources shall not be alienated. ”
Political law and Public International law 5 Miranda Doctrine Rights available during custodial investigation or in-custody interrogation of an accused person , which has been defined as any questioning initiated by law enforcement officers after a person has been taken into custody or otherwise deprived of his freedom of action in any significant way. The rule begins to operate as soon as the investigation ceases to be a general inquiry into an unsolved crime and direction is then aimed upon a particular suspect who has been taken into custody and to whom the police would then direct interrogatory questions which tend to elicit incriminating statements.
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