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- Activities might include topic introduction, clarifying task instructions, recall students useful words and phrases to facilitate task accomplishment and providing partial demonstration of task procedures.
PRINCIPLESMaking errors is natural and is considered as a part of the process in acquiring the target language. Learning tasks facilitating learners to engage in interactions are essential. Learners need to be encouraged to produce the target language.
SOME TECHNIQUESINFORMATION – GAP TASKS:Information exchange among the student to complete the task
SOME TECHNIQUESOPINION – GAP TASK:Students need to express their feeling to complete the task
SOME TECHNIQUESREASONING – GAP TASK:Students make a conclusion from the information given
ConclusionTask-based teaching offers the opportunity for “natural” learning inside the classroom. encourages child-centered learning. Helps learners develop individual differences and support learning autonomy. Helps learners use language in a communicative process through authentic experience while engaging the target language.
The structural-situational methodPresenter: Nguyn ThThu Hinễịề
IntroductionDeveloped from 1920s to 1960s by British applied linguisticsMastery of structures is more important than acquisition of vocabularyEmploying techniques of the Direct method“The structural appoach is, infact, the situational appoach of language teach”
PrinciplesLanguage learning is habit formationLanguage skills are learned more effectively if they are presented orally first, then in written formThe target language is the language of the classroom
PrinciplesItems of grammar are graded following the principle that simple form should be taught before complex ones.Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basic is established.
Roles of teacher and student•The relationship based on mutual respect.•Ts are model, set up situations to create the use of the target language•Ts answer the questions and correct the errors of Ss.•Ss listen and repeat what the Ts say and respond to the commands.•Ss work with other Ss to answer the different questions.
EmphasisEmphasized mainly on oral practice, grammar, sentence patternsSpeech is mainly stressed but reading and writing is not neglected
Conclusion•Influencing many teaching materials from the 1940s to 1960s and beyond•Offering a practical methodology suited to countries where national EFL/ESL syllabuses are grammatically based•Still being used in some parts of the world today