Hierarchy of needs theory proposes that people are motivated by five levels of

Hierarchy of needs theory proposes that people are

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Hierarchy of needs theory: proposes that people are motivated by five levels of needs: o Physiological (top) Most basic human physical needs, in which one is concerned with having food, clothing, shelter, and comfort and with self-preservation o Safety Needs concerned with physical safety and emotional security, so that a person is concerned with avoiding violence and threats o Love People look for love, friendship and affection o Esteem Focus on matters like self-respect, status, reputation, recognition, and self- confidence o Self-actualization (bottom) Self-fulfillment – the need to develop one’s fullest potential, to become the best one is capable of being - Five Levels of Needs o Needs are never completely satisfied o Actions are aimed at fulfilling the “deprived” needs Example: once you’ve achieved safety, you will then seek to fulfill the third most basic need – love o Research doesn’t clearly support Maslow’s theory Example: Chip Conley, CEO and founder of Joie de Vivre Hospitality wrote a book describing how he used Maslow’s theory to save his boutique hotel company with 40 locations from going bankrupt - Using the Hierarchy of Needs Theory to Motivate Employees
o Maslow showed that workers have needs beyond that of just earning a paycheck o Managers should try to meet employees level 1 and level 2 needs, so employees won’t be preoccupied with them Alderfer’s ERG Theory: Existence, Relatedness, & Growth - ERG theory (Clayton Alderfer – 1960s) assumes that three basic needs influence behavior – existence, relatedness, and growth - The Three Kinds of needs (lowest to highest) o E-Existence Needs: the desire for physiological and material well-being o R – Relatedness Needs: the desire to have meaningful relationships with people who are significant to us o G – Growth Needs: desire to grow as human beings and to use our abilities to their fullest potential - Using the ERG Theory to Motivate Employees o Frustration-regression component of ERG theory has some applicability to the workplace o Example: if you’re a bill collector making difficult phone calls and having no contact with co-workers, you might lobby your boss for better pay and benefits o ERG theory consistent with finding that individual and cultural differences influence our need states o People are motivated by different needs at different times in their lives, which suggests that managers should customize their reward and recognition programs to meet employees’ varying needs. McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory: Achievement, Affiliation & Power - David McClelland was a psychologist who investigated the needs for affiliation and power and proposed the acquired needs theory - Acquired Needs Theory: states that three needs – achievement, affiliation, and power- are major motives determining people’s behavior in the workplace - Believes we are not born with our needs, but learn them from culture – from our life experiences - The Three Needs o

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