ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

The most well known theory of motivation is abraham

Info icon This preview shows pages 14–16. Sign up to view the full content.

The most well-known theory of motivation is Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs . Maslow hypothesized that within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. As each need is sequentially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. According to Maslow, if you want to motivate someone, you need to know what level of the hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying those needs at or above that level.
Image of page 14

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

For instance, until a person's safety needs are met, their self-actualization needs (i.e. getting ahead in their career) are not going to be a real source of motivation. Lower-order needs are those that are satisfied externally, such as physiological and safety needs. On the other hand, higher-order needs are those that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and self-actualization. Clayton Alderfer's ERG theory is similar to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. ERG theory has only three needs: existence, relatedness, and growth. According to Alderfer’s ERG theory, existence needs are similar to what Maslow defined as basic needs. For example food, water, and air. According to Alderfer’s ERG theory, relatedness needs concern satisfactorily relating to others. An example of this would be a person motivated by good relations with co-workers According to Alderfer’s ERG theory, growth needs concern self-development, creativity and competence. Growth needs represent the intrinsic desires people have to attain their maximum potential. This is similar to Maslow's esteem needs and self-actualization needs. According to Douglas McGregor, Theory X states that some managers assume that employees dislike work, are lazy, and must be coerced to perform. Theory X managers assume that employees must be controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. This type of manager also assumes that employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. The last assumption made by this type of manager is that most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition. According to Douglas McGregor, Theory Y states that some managers assume that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction . Theory Y states that employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play and will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. Additionally, the ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions. According to the motivation-Hygiene theory, which was proposed by Frederick Herzberg, intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. In the belief that an individual’s relation to his or her work is a basic one and that his or her attitude toward this work can very well determine the individual’s success or failure, Herzberg investigated the question, “What do people want from their jobs?” He asked people to describe situations when
Image of page 15
Image of page 16
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern