Stress”nmight be operationally defined in terms of the rate of one’s heartbeat)scientific constructs: imaginary or hypothetical and cannot be seen with the naked eye or even with sophisticated optical equipment, in order to explain what we observe.obuilding blocks of nature—protons, neutrons, and electrons—nremain visibly elusive by direct observation but are indirectly confirmed by their necessary existence in the construct.oit has provided for continual progress toward an understanding of what may be realoIQ is also a construct Some Basic Scientific Constructs 14Constructs such as trait, reinforcement, and self have been created in efforts to understandpersonality scientifically.Trait refers to a determining tendency or predisposition to respond in a certain way.oExamples of traits are emotional stability andintroversion versus extraversion.The self: understanding personality that is present in many contemporary theoriesoCarl Rogers’s theory self refers to those psychological processes that govern an individual’s behavior
oThus Cattell (1950) defines personality as “that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation.” oFor Cattell, personality is an imaginary construct that permits us to explain and predict behavior.Criteria for Evaluating Scientific Statements 14One: Scientific, statements must fulfill the criterion of verifiabilityomust ultimately be based on empirical observation, and the theory behind them has to specify how they can be confirmed or refutedoScientific statements, therefore, are based on what is and what occurs in our everyday world as it appears to us through our sense organs.Two: Must be open to falsificationorequired to indicate the conditions under which theoretical statements might be proven incorrectThird: Usefulness: generate information that can assist us in livingOccasionally, the scientist is left with rival hypotheses.Three criteriahave been used to cipher the rival hypotheses: compatibility, predictive power, and simplicity.oCompatibility refers to the agreement of the hypothesis with previously well established informationoPredictive powerrefers to the range or scope of the statement. Scientists seek notonly to explain the phenomena that we observe but also to predict and anticipate them. The more predictions or consequences that we can infer from a theory, the greater is its range and usefulness in generating new ideas.
Theories 16Psychometric Tests: measure personality characteristics by means of carefully designed questionnaires developed with theoretical and statistical techniques.Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): omade up of over 550 self-report items or printed statements to which the participant answers “true,” “false,” or “cannot sayoDesigned to measure tendencies toward pathologyo