Stressnmight be operationally defined in terms of the rate of ones heartbeat

Stressnmight be operationally defined in terms of the

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Stress”nmight be operationally defined in terms of the rate of one’s heartbeat) scientific constructs: imaginary or hypothetical and cannot be seen with the naked eye or even with sophisticated optical equipment, in order to explain what we observe. o building blocks of nature—protons, neutrons, and electrons—nremain visibly elusive by direct observation but are indirectly confirmed by their necessary existence in the construct. o it has provided for continual progress toward an understanding of what may be real o IQ is also a construct Some Basic Scientific Constructs 14 Constructs such as trait, reinforcement, and self have been created in efforts to understand personality scientifically. Trait refers to a determining tendency or predisposition to respond in a certain way. o Examples of traits are emotional stability andintroversion versus extraversion. The self: understanding personality that is present in many contemporary theories o Carl Rogers’s theory self refers to those psychological processes that govern an individual’s behavior
o Thus Cattell (1950) defines personality as “that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation.” o For Cattell, personality is an imaginary construct that permits us to explain and predict behavior. Criteria for Evaluating Scientific Statements 14 One: Scientific, statements must fulfill the criterion of verifiability o must ultimately be based on empirical observation, and the theory behind them has to specify how they can be confirmed or refuted o Scientific statements, therefore, are based on what is and what occurs in our everyday world as it appears to us through our sense organs. Two: Must be open to falsification o required to indicate the conditions under which theoretical statements might be proven incorrect Third: U sefulness: generate information that can assist us in living Occasionally, the scientist is left with rival hypotheses. Three criteria have been used to cipher the rival hypotheses: compatibility, predictive power, and simplicity. o Compatibility refers to the agreement of the hypothesis with previously well established information o Predictive power refers to the range or scope of the statement. Scientists seek not only to explain the phenomena that we observe but also to predict and anticipate them. The more predictions or consequences that we can infer from a theory, the greater is its range and usefulness in generating new ideas.
Theories 16 Psychometric Tests: measure personality characteristics by means of carefully designed questionnaires developed with theoretical and statistical techniques. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): o made up of over 550 self-report items or printed statements to which the participant answers “true,” “false,” or “cannot say o Designed to measure tendencies toward pathology o

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