The key points which are common to any unambiguous

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The key points, which are common to any unambiguous formal writing for an international English-language audience, include:·Writing in the third person. Academic writing must be objective; the focus is not on the writer, buton the topic and ideas of the paper;·Avoiding abbreviations and slang, both of which may be highly culture-specific. The focus is clear,formal-register language which will be unambiguous regardless of the variety of English used by thepaper's international readership. Similarly, one should also write out numbers, currency designators,units of measurement, etc., in full.95 of 116
An additional characteristic of academic writing is the use of relatively cautious or 'qualified'language, especially when documenting claims of new knowledge. Inasmuch as the evidence of thepaper can only be based on what is currently known about the topic, this evidence may wellchange as new knowledge emerges (indeed, the "new knowledge" proposed by your paper willchange what has been known about the topic before you wrote your paper. Thus, since the'knowledge' will never be completely certain, it is useful to express claims with language such as:·This report appears to show that . . .·But on page 357, Virtanen seems to feel differently . . .·In this context, Heiskanen apparently disagrees with Virtanen . . .2. Kinds of Academic WritingThere are various kinds of academic writing; each divided according to the purpose is serves andits distinctive characteristics. There are basically four kinds of literary writing:·Essay·Research Essay·Research Paper·Book Review·Summary or Reaction Paper2.1 EssayAn essay is an art that features the elements of the writer's thinking and the writer's voice. Unless youwrite honestly, with the conviction that comes from using your own voice, you are not writing anessay. There are two basic sub divisions:·Thesis Support Essay:The essay most commonly assigned in college writing is the thesis-support essay, which addresses a centralquestion or issue and offers a supporting thesis.®Sometimes you explain or defend your thesis with reasons and evidence gained from your personalexperience.®Often, you are expected to include new thinking and evidence gained from your reading or other kinds ofresearch.®Generally, you will be assigned, or will need to settle on, a specific method or form, almost alwaysincluding an introduction, body and conclusion.96 of 116
·Informal Essay:In the humanities or the arts (and sometimes in math and science), you might be asked to write an informalessay, one more exploratory and reflective, developing not 'top down,' by supporting a thesis with reasonsand examples, but rather 'bottom up,' by starting with experiences and finding some storyline or trail ofexplanation.2.2 Research EssayOrdinarily this assignment is really to write an essay, but a Research Essay, which just means an essay that hasbeen expanded by your research. This assignment gets some students in trouble because they think a research

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