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Chem 181Winter 201675-If you look at packages it contains a warning: contains phenylalanine. People who sufferPKU (genetic condition) cannot metabolize it and it can accumulate in brain and causeproblems.oThat's why needs to come with a warning label. Sweetened with NutraSweet.Company bought aspartame, and gave it the name of NutraSweet (brand nameof aspartame).-One issues associated with it is that it is not heat stable, can be used in diet drink, etc.But cannot be used in items that is heated up. (cakes, etc).-Aspartic Acid-Phenylalanine-Methyl Ester all linked together.-When it breaks down under heat, methanol is released and no linkage betweencompounds so sweetness disappears. Great deal of controversy because of the releaseof methanol.-Methanol is toxic, is it toxic in the amount one would be exposed to from thebreakdown of aspartame of body?-Lethal dose is 20000-70000 mg. From diet soda, it is 20 mg.-Methanol is naturally present in many food, fruit juices (apple and grape juice) and eventomato juice.-The amount of methanol that is released from soft drinks is negligible.-Does aspartame cause problem in brain damage or allergy?-Some evidences that it can cause headaches, dizziness, fatigue and mood changes. Butno certain evidence that can cause this in humans.-Breakdown of aspartame to phenylalanine can give rise to a number of brain chemicalssuch asoPhenylethylamineoTyrosine which further breaks down to catecholamine’s-People who are heavy drinkers of these diet drinks, some of this anecdotal affecthappens because of the release of these brain chemicals.Video 7:-Epidemiological Studies do not suggest that Aspartame does NOT say it is linked withParkinson, multiple sclerosis or cancer.-Aspartame is said to be linked in increase with brain tumors. Parralel in increase inaspartame and brain tumors. But if you increase it further on, brain tumors did notincrease it leveled off.-Association does not mean causation…-Many studies were carried out with aspartame…most studied of all additives present infood.-ADI for Aspartame is 40mg/kg (50 mg in USA).-How is this ADI (acceptable daily intake) determined? Based on animal studies.-On animal studies one determines NOAEL, at 4000mg/kg there is no observed adverseeffect. To determine what is acceptable on a human scale, it is brought down by afactor of 100. So 4000/100 = 40 40 mg.-How does this ADI (average compare to average daily intake? 5mg/kg (8 times less thanADI).
Sundus NaeemChem 181Winter 201676-A 70 kg man would have to drink 20 cans a day to reach the ADI and 1600 cans a day toreach the NOAEL.-Ramazzini Institiute:oSome people have released studies that aspartame can cause canceoIn 2005 Ramazzini, 1800 rats were fed aspartame over their life time…andfemale rats show a statistically significant increase in lymphomas and leukemia’swhen fed doses close to human consumption. (doses fed to rat were close tohuman consumption).