Comparative analysis of environmental impact between

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Comparative analysis of environmental impact between natural fur and fake fur. 7.2 Description of Environmental Impacts (a) Ozone layer depletion: Most atmospheric ozone is found at an altitude of around 15 30 km and this part of the atmosphere is therefore known as the ozone layer. This layer absorbs much of the damaging ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun. The ozone layer is depleted by a variety of gases like chloro fl uorocarbons (CFCs), which results in decline of layer thickness (Bijleveld et al. 2011 ). (b) Ionising radiation: Ionising radiation results from the decay of radioactive atoms like those of uranium-235, krypton-85 and iodine-129. There are two types of ionising radiation: particle-type radiation (alpha radiation, beta radiation, neutrons, protons) and high-energy electromagnetic radiation (X-rays, gamma radiation). Ionising radia- tion can damage DNA and cause a variety of cancers (Bijleveld et al. 2011 ). (c) Respiratory inorganics: Respiratory effects resulting from winter smog caused by emissions of dust, sulphur and nitrogen oxides to air. Damage is expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALY)/kg emission (Earthshift 2016 ). (d) Carcinogens: Carcinogenic affects due to emissions of carcinogenic substances to air, water and soil. Damage is expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALY)/kg emission (Earthshift). To Fur or not to Fur: Sustainable Production and Consumption 51
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Figures 1 and 2 show the fl ow of inputs and outputs associated with the life cycle of a natural fur and fake fur. For each stage, all of the major inputs and outputs are identi fi ed (Fig. 3 ). The red arrows indicate the primary fl ow path among the process stages. The pink shaded arrows indicate operations that may occur as part of an integrated mink farm operation or that may take place off site. The green shaded arrows indicate the potential for some of the product waste fl ow to be reused. Killing/ slaughtering Skinning Stretching Dyeing Auctioning Further Processing Fig. 1 Steps in natural fur production Fig. 2 Production, use and disposal stages of natural fur (DSS Management Consultants Inc. 2012 ) 52 M. Ramchandani and I. Coste-Maniere
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8 Economic and Financial Considerations The production of unprocessed fur tends to take place in developed countries, while the processing of fur and production of fur clothing take place in countries with a lower GDP per capita (Hansen 2014 ). The signi fi cant difference in wage costs, increasing globalisation and intense international competition mean that low tech- nological and labour-intensive production moves to countries with low costs, something which is especially true for the fur sector. However, it should be men- tioned that fur animal production has become very advanced, and in reality, the production of high-quality fur requires a range of skills.
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