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According to Hobbes, the sovereign must have total control not just over politics, but over religion, philosophy, even science, lest error and division creep in and undermine good order.Hobbes widely denounced as a wicked atheist. Reaction against him helped turn English thinkers against Cartesian mechanical philosophy in the later 17th century. Kicked out of the Royal Society. Other scientists didn’t want to associate with Hobbes’s “wicked ideals.” He reflects the ideas of mechanical philosophy. Life in mechanical world was a power struggle. Hobbes’s work was most important in science for the reaction itself -- people turned away from a strong form of mechanical philosophy. They were looking for something more ‘modest’ from that of Hobbes and Descartes. 10/26Review The Central Phase of the Scientific RevolutionPeople:William Gilbert (1544–1603) — English - known for magnetism, published De Magnete
Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) — Danish - his response to Copernicanism? He was a modern astronomer in many ways, taking observations, but can’t swallow the idea that the Earth moves. New astronomy requires a new physics, so it’s changing your whole view of the universe and how things move. What are scientific theories for? Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) — German - takes Tycho’s observations very seriously. Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) — Italian - makes observations and measurements and tries to see if there is some pattern to them in math, not Kepler’s attitude of mystical cosmos. William Harvey (1578–1657) — EnglishBlaise Pascal (1623–62) — French René Descartes (1596–1650) — French Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) — EnglishThemes:Response to Copernicanism:• New astronomy (Copernicus, Kepler) requires a new physics (Galileo)The uses of mathematics:• as the key to hidden harmonies (Kepler)• as a descriptive tool (Galileo)• as a model of rigorous reasoning (Descartes)How to talk about experiments and make them proofs for new discoveries, experimenting and observing vs talking about experience, where Aristotelians/Scholastics are all about just explaining things that people already know.- Debate over method and use of experiments:• deductive rationalism (Descartes, Hobbes) vs. inductive empiricism (Bacon) • use of experiments by Gilbert, Galileo, Harvey, and Pascal- Harvey and Gilbert - did experiments observing the ordinary workings and contrived phenomena. The mechanical philosophy (mostly associated with Descartes though has many roots):• Matter regarded as just ‘dead rocks’ with only size, shape, and motion (primary qualities)• Invention of detailed mechanisms to account for natural phenomena- Galileo says the underlying structure of matter is mathematical with size/shape/motion, and that is how we should understand nature - very close to Descartes in this. Belief and authority: the Galileo affair; Hobbes on science, religion, and the stateEssay questions will be about one of these themes. Don’t need exact dates for people, but know decades.