Finally it is well documented that nursing faculty are of ten ill prepared to

Finally it is well documented that nursing faculty

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Finally, it is well documented that nursing faculty are of- ten ill-prepared to present effective cultural material (Bond, 2004; Leininger & McFarland, 2002). No mixed-methods research could be found that sought to measure the effect of an innovative embedded service-learning curriculum that emphasized critical reflection, on the development of cultural competence in nursing students. This study was designed to address this gap. Theoretical Framework The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services (Campinha-Bacote, 2014) was used to guide the study. Cultural competence is defined as "the process in which the healthcare provider con- tinuously strives to achieve the ability to work effectively within the cultural context of a client, individual, family or community" (Campinha-Bacote, 2003, p. 54). It is a dynamic process meant to continue throughout one's lifetime. The framework includes five constructs: 1) cultural awareness is the self-examination phase; 2) cultural knowledge is the sound information the student seeks; 3) cultural skill is the ability to conduct a culturally sensitive assessment; 4) cultural encounters is the process of engaging in cul- tural interactions; 5) cultural desire is the motivation of students to become engaged in the process. Competence develops when one fully synthesizes the five concepts. I S T t l Journal of Cultural Diversity • Vol. 26, No.3 Fall 2019
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Campinha-Bacote suggests that desire must be present to move forward. Individuals must want to consider multiple perspectives. In addition, student must be presented with opportunities for cultural encounters. Aim The aim of this mixed-methods study was to explore whether participation in diverse clinical settings in an ethnically diverse inner city that serve the underserved followed by guided critical reflection would significantly increase students' level cultural competence as measured by the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among Healthcare Professionals-Student Version (LAPCC-SV)® (Campinha-Bacote, 2014). Research Questions Quantitative Is there an increase in cultural competence scores in stu- dents who participate in diverse service-learning clinical placements as compared to traditional clinical placements during a baccalaureate undergraduate program? Qualitative What are the common themes shared by students who participate in diverse clinical settings that serve the un- derserved? Mixed-Methods To what extent do the quantitative scores of students participating in diverse clinical settings that focus on the underserved inform the themes derived from qualitative interviews? Methodology Worldview: Pragmatism The philosophical foundation of the mixed methods approach to research is pragmatism (Creswell and Tashak- kori, 2007). This approach blends singular and multiple views of reality (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011). Mixed- methods researchers seek to describe a problem within the social/ political landscape (Morgan, 2007). Morgan (2007) advocates this method provides the opportunity for invesstigators to move between the induction/deduc-
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  • Nursing, Qualitative Research, Journal of Cultural Diversity

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