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also attributed to Kurt Lewin. Action Research involves a continuous, cyclical process that includes at least five steps. Most organizations using the Action Research Change Model employ the following steps (O'Brien, 1998):Diagnosis:Defines the problemAction planning:Determines possible courses of action through researchTaking action:Deciding what action the organization will pursueEvaluation:Studying the possible consequences of actionSpecifying learning:Determining the findingsAction Research is a beneficial model for use in organizational change initiatives because it focuses on researching a specific problem with the goal of finding a solution. While going through the research process, employees involved in the change initiative will learn a great deal about the organization. Action Research includes a learning process that is often beneficial to the organization as a whole. Put simply, the end results of Action Research are change through strategic action and a greater understanding as a consequence of what is learned during the research process (O'Brien, 1998). The following image provides a visualization of the Action Research process:
(Adapted from Action Research Process, n.d.)Organizational change is challenging. However, combining strategic planning with one or more of these change models will help guide change initiatives in the proper direction. For example, Action Research can be used with the other change models discussed to ensure solid understanding of the problems being examined so an effective plan of action can be employed. Change initiatives are more successful when a specific plan is identified, and change models helporganize the plan. When change initiatives are successful, organizations increase their competitiveness in the marketplace, their employees actively contribute to the greater good, and a positive collaborate workplace culture is developed.Interactive Examples1The three phases of Kurt Lewin’s 3-Step Change Model are:Change, Refreeze, Unfreeze2Nadler’s Congruence Model requires all aspects of organizations to work together to develop and maintain congruence. As a result, organizations using this change model must continually work to __________ a collaborative workplace culture.maintainencourage 3David Cooperrider developed the Appreciative Inquiry Model for change. “This change model is
based on the premise that thinking and viewing a past performance in a positive light will have a great motivational impact” (Cooperrider & Sekerka, 2006).4The strategic planning process is critically important for organizations to grow. During this process, changes may be made to the organization’s mission .5Please match the corresponding steps of John Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model with the three steps of Kurt Lewin’s Change Model. Please note: there will not bethe same number of Kotter's itemsmatched in each of Lewin's steps.The correct answer is:UnfreezeCommunicate the change visionDevelop a vision and strategyEstablish a sense of urgencyCreate the guiding coalitionChange