Do not expose a person to a substantial risk of

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) do not expose a person to a substantial risk of torture anywhere in the world. 115 Conditioning ethical prescriptions produce disinterested subjects that uphold imperialism Interview with William V. Spanos ‘11 , SUNY Binghamton, *modified for ableist language All that I've just said should suggest what I meant when, long ago, in response to someone in the debate world who seemed puzzled by the strong reservations I expressed on being informed that the debate community in the U.S. was appropriating my work on Heidegger, higher education, and American imperialism. I said then -- and I repeat here to you -- that the traditional form of the debate, that is, the hegemonic frame that rigidly determines its protocols-- is unworldly in an ideological way. It willfully separates the debaters from the world as it actually is-- by which I mean as it has been produced by the dominant democratic I capitalist culture --and it displaces them to a free-floating zone, a no place, as it were, where all things, nor matter how different the authority they command in the real world, are equal. But in *this* real world produced by the combination of Protestant Christianity and democratic capitalism things -- and therefore their value -- are never equal . They are framed into a system of binaries- Identity/ difference , Civilization/barbarism I Men/woman, Whites/blacks, Sedentary/ nomadic, Occidental/ oriental, Chosen I preterit (passed over), Self-reliance I dependent (communal), Democracy I communism, Protestant Christian I Muslim, and so on -- in which the first term is not only privileged over the second term, but, in thus being privileged, is also empowered to demonize the second. Insofar as the debate world frames argument as if every position has equal authority ( the debater can take either side ) it obscures and eventually effaces awareness of the degrading imbalance of power in the real world and the terrible injustices it perpetrates . Thus framed, debate gives the false impression that it is a truly democratic institution, whereas in reality it is complicitous with the dehumanized and dehumanizing system of power that produced it. It is no accident, in my mind, that this fraudulent form of debate goes back to the founding of the U.S. as a capitalist republic and that it has produced what I call the "political class" to indicate not only the basic sameness between the Democratic and Republican parties but also its fundamental indifference to the plight of those who don't count in a system where what counts is determined by those who are the heirs of this quantitative system of binaries . Prioritize debate over the ethics of the system that the AFF endorses prior to evaluating the consequences of the plan – Cost benefit analysis fails without first establishing an ethical baseline that decides what is an acceptable outcome Burke et al, Associate Professor of International and Political Studies at UNSW Australia, 14
(Anthony, Katrina Lee-Koo is Senior Lecturer in International Relations at

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