Literature review there have been numerous studies

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Literature Review There have been numerous studies looking at the motivation of adult ESL and EFL students to learn English. This section will discuss the general findings of the motivations of these two groups. The role that English as an international language plays will also be taken into consideration. Motivation of Adult ESL Learners Adult ESL learners have both high instrumental and high integrative motivations for learning English. (Saito & Eisenstein Ebsworth, 2004). Some examples of instrumental motives include obtaining a better job, being able to use or view various forms of media, traveling abroad, and furthering education. Some examples of integrative motives are the desire to meet 5
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MOTIVATION IN ADULT ESL AND EFL LEARNERS and communicate with new people, the desire to encounter new cultures, and the desire to live or work abroad. Li (2017) noted the results of his study supported the L2 motivational self-system in that when learners internalize the instrumental motives, the motives become a part of their ideal L2 self. However, if the instrumental motives are not internalized, they become part of the ought-to L2 self. These two types of motives stay relatively stable over time. What causes the most change in motivation over time is the L2 learning environment. These results show the importance of the learning experience. It is important to note that the L2 learning experience includes both the experiences in the classroom and outside the classroom. Li (2017) noted of the students “without positive learning experiences outside the classroom, they may not maintain their overall motivation” (p. 120). With a focus on the importance of learning experiences outside the classroom, it is possible that learners start to focus more on being competent users of English than to focus on learning English in order to pass exams. However, it should be noted of Li’s (2017) study that the “qualitative findings are not generalizable, but may be transferable” (p. 120). This study was limited in both the number of participants and the duration of the study. There were only 11 Chinese participants who were studied over a three-month period. In Li’s (2014) study of the differences between ESL and EFL learners, he found that ESL learners have a significantly higher ideal L2 self, more positive attitude to learning English, and higher level of effort made toward learning English. He proposed that students’ ideal L2 selves might be related to the attitude they have toward the L2 community. In addition, the favorable attitude toward learning English might have something to do with the learning environment. Saito and Eisenstein Ebsworth (2004) found that Japanese ESL learners have a better teacher- student relationship than EFL learners, which may have a positive effect on the learning 6
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MOTIVATION IN ADULT ESL AND EFL LEARNERS environment. Li (2014) also noted that ESL class sizes tend to be smaller and are more student- centered than EFL classes. Vibulphol (2016) stated that in student-centered classrooms “teachers seemed to be more proficient in initializing and maintaining students’ internal motivation” (p.
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