Isabelle's Dynamic Planet Notes (Sections a-e)

Intra glacial material dropped in situ by retreating

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intra-glacial material dropped 'in situ' by retreating ice, is known as Till c) Braided streams: created when the discharge of water cannot transport its load. When there is a decrease in stream velocity, sediment is deposited on the floor of the channel creating bars. The bars separate the channel into several smaller channels creating a braided appearance. Braided channels are common in glaciated or recently glaciated landscapes where streams are fed by debris-choked melt water. d) Drumlins: A drumlin is a streamlined, elongate hill composed of glacial drift. Drumlins are often found in swarms; their tapered end pointing in the direction of glacier advance. e) Erratics: An erratic is a boulder transported and deposited by a glacier having a composition different than the bedrock upon which it is sitting. f) Eskers: sinuous ridges formed from drift deposited in tunnels running through a glacier. Eskers are often mined for gravel and sand. g) Kames: Kames are mounds or hills created when drift fills a hole in a glacier. When the glacier recedes the mound is left behind.
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h) Kettles: Kettle holes are depressions left by the melting of an ice block lodged in a deposit of till or drift. Kettles are often found embedded in moraines and on outwash plains. Till or drift is initially deposited around the block of ice. When the ice melts, a depression is left behind. Kettle lakes occur where the kettle hole is filled with water. i) Moraine: Moraine is material transported by a glacier and then deposited. There are eight types of moraine, six of which form recognizable landforms, and two of which exist only whilst the glacier exists. The types of moraine that form landforms are Ground , Lateral , Medial , Push , Recessional and Terminal . The two types only associated with glacial ice are Supraglacial and Englacial moraine. j) Outwash plain: large areas of glacial sediment deposited by meltwater streams furthest away from the glacial snout. They are formed from gravels, sands and clays, the clays being furthest away from the snout because the smaller particles are carried furthest. Material that was already deposited by older streams and ice activity may be reworked and sorted by the streams forming the outwash plain, and carried beyond the original maximum extent of the ice sheet / glacier. Some idea of the former extent of glaciation may be seen from the thickness of outwash plain sediments which can be well in excess of 50m thick. k) Till plain: Forms behind a end moraine; it features unstratified coarse till (unsorted glacial drift, composed of a variety of earth materials ranging in size from clay to boulders), has low and rolling relief, and has a deranged drainage pattern.
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  • Spring '12
  • Mr.Busk
  • Ecology, Glacier, alpine glacier

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