Glencoe Health 2005.pdf

Colitis colitis is an inflammation of the large

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COLITIS Colitis is an inflammation of the large intestine or colon. It may be caused by bacterial or viral infections. Symptoms may include fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which can contain blood. HEMORRHOIDS Hemorrhoids are veins in the rectum and anus that are swollen as a result of increased pressure. Hemorrhoids may occur with consti- pation, during pregnancy, and after childbirth. Signs of hemorrhoids include itching, pain, and bleeding. Regular physical activity and a diet high in fiber can help prevent hemorrhoids. TOOTH DECAY Teeth are very important to the digestive process. Brushing and flossing teeth daily is the best way to prevent tooth decay and to keep your teeth healthy. health.glencoe.com HS_HEALTH_U05_C17_L2 12/8/03 12:27 PM Page 452
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VOCABULARY urine nephrons ureters bladder urethra cystitis urethritis hemodialysis The Urinary System YOU’LL LEARN TO Identify the structures and functions of the urinary system. Examine the effects of health behaviors on the urinary system. Identify and describe problems of the urinary system. Relate the importance of early detection and warning signs that prompt individuals of all ages to seek health care for urinary system problems. The kidneys use filtration to cleanse the blood. List several examples of filters used in everyday life. As you read this lesson, compare these examples of filtering with the way the urinary system filters the blood. 453 Lesson 3 The Urinary System Avoid caffeine drinks, drink at least eight glasses of water daily, and include other healthful sources of fluids to help maintain the function of your urinary system. hile the digestive system removes solid wastes from W the body, the urinary system functions to filter and remove liquid waste. A healthy urinary system helps main- tain balance within the internal environment of the body. Because of this important role, problems in the urinary system, if left untreated, can affect the entire body and may result in death. Function of the Urinary System he main function of the urinary system is to filter waste T and extra fluid from the blood. is liquid waste material excreted from the body through the process of urination. Urine consists of water and body wastes that contain nitrogen. These wastes become toxic to cells if they remain in the body for too long. The Kidneys The kidneys, shown in Figure 17.3 on the next page, are bean- shaped organs about the size of a fist. They are near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage. Urine
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T HE K IDNEY The kidney, part of the urinary system, performs the vital function of removing wastes from the blood. The kidneys remove waste products from the blood through tiny filtering units called (NEH-frahnz), the functional units of the kidneys. Each kidney contains over 1 million nephrons. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small capillaries, called a glomerulus (gluhm-ER-ruh-luhs), and a small tube called a renal tubule that functions as a filtering funnel.
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