Incomplete dominance in 16061 as invasive species 434

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incomplete dominance in, 160–61 as invasive species, 434 life cycle of, 133 f life table for United States population, 419 f lymphatic system of, 345 marathoners vs. sprinters and muscle fibers of, 93 number of chromosomes in body cells of, 64, 125 f nutrient pollution of, 456 nutrition of, 452 pollution by ( see pollution) population growth of, 430–34 populations of, 258 f as primates, 253 f , 374–375 reproductive cloning of, 211 respiration and breathing of, 96 sex determination and sex-linked genes in, 167–68 skin cells of, 56 f skin pigmentation of, 162–63 sweating as evaporative cooling of, 32 f sweeteners and tooth decay of, 43 therapeutic cloning and, 212 traits controlled by single genes in, 155 f humidity, 32 hummingbirds, 372 humpback whales, 437 f Huntington’s disease, 157 t , 158 hybrid breakdown, 274 f , 275 hybrids, 149 , 278 hydras, 348, 355 hydrocarbons, 40 –41, 307 hydrogen, 26, 28 f hydrogenation, 46 hydrogen bonds, 30 , 30–33, 31 f , 32 f hydrogen gas, 29 f hydrogen ions, 34–35, 101, 116 hydrolysis, 41 hydrophilic molecules, 44 , 48 f , 62 hydrophobic molecules, 45 , 48 f , 62 hydrothermal vents, 301 f , 389, 395–96 hydroxide ions, 34–35 hydroxyl group, 41, 42 f hypercholesterolemia, 85 f , 157 t , 160 hypertonic solutions, 86 –87 hyphae, 331 hypodermis, 347 hypothesis, 16 hypothesis-driven science, 16 –19, 387 hypotonic solutions, 86 f , 87 I ibex, 266 f ice biological significance of floating of, 32–33 melting of, and polar bears and penguins, 385 f , 386 as physical state of water, 24 f , 31 f polar ice biome, 403 ice cream, 38 f iguanas, 5 f , 10, 249 f imaging technology, 346 immune systems animal, 345 functions of, 345 human, 61, 192–93, 234, 345 inactivation, gene, 204, 205 f inbreeding, 157 . See also breeding incomplete dominance, 160 –61 independent assortment. See law of independent assortment India, 433 indirect census techniques, 418 individual variation, 13, 254–55, 259 Indonesian hobbit people, 349 f , 350 induced fit, 84 inductive reasoning, 16 Industrial Revolution, 379 infections, 305, 332 inflammatory bowel disease, 46 influenza virus, 174 f , 175, 192, 194, 196 ingestion, 328 f , 351 f inheritance, 146–73. See also genetics asexual reproduction and, 124, 132 cancer and, 215 chromosome theory of, 164 –66 DNA role in, 176 dog breeding and, 146 f , 147, 169 founder effect and, 264 heritable variation and patterns of, 148–60 ideas of Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck on, 247–48 natural selection and, 255 polygenic, 162–63, 259 population genetics, health science, and, 261 role of environment in, 163 sex chromosomes, sex-linked genes, and, 167–68 sexual reproduction and, 132 variations on Mendel’s laws, 160–63 inhibitors, enzyme, 84 initiation, 183, 186, 187 f , 205, 206 inorganic nutrients, 94, 390, 453–56 insecticides, 429 insects, 352 –54 anatomy of, 363 camouflage and, 246 f diversity of, 364–65 evolution of, 245, 255 fossils of, 282 f fruit flies ( see fruit flies) integrated pest management of, 429 mantids and camouflage, 246 f mimicry in, 443–44 pesticide-resistant, 245, 255, 258, 264 spiders, 31 f tundra biome and, 403 weather as density-independent population growth factor for, 424 insulation, 347 insulin, 10, 19, 202 f , 206. See also diabetes integrated pest management (IPM), 429 integumentary system, 345 , 347 interactions, hierarchy of, 388 interactions, interspecific. See interspecific interactions Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 407, 412 intermediate filaments, 71

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