Test 1 Notes Compilation CogPsych.docx

Karl lashley 1929 wondered if there is a specific

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Karl Lashley (1929) wondered if there is a specific location that contains a specific memory o Trained rat to run a maze o Ablated various widespread areas of the brain
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o Impairment on the maze task was related to the total amount of cortex removed , not to the specific area that was removed Distributed processing in the brain In vision, color shape, motion, depth are all processed in different parts of the visual system But when we see an object, we do not have an experience of this distributed phenomenon. o We see the object as a whole How do we account for this? o The binding problem The “Grandmother Cell” A single neuron dedicated to recognizing or representing a single specific pattern Some reasons to doubt that the brain uses grandmother cells for perception, thought and memory It would require too many cells to have one dedicated to every object we perceive, every concept we have, everything we remember If a cell died, we would be unable to perceive the thing that it represented or to think about its concept It doesn’t explain how we perceive something new or think about a new concept or have a new memory An alternative account In contrast to “local” representation, such as the grandmother cell, the brain may use “distributed” representation Each cell participates in representing many different patterns (or object or concepts) Each pattern (or object or concept) is represented by the activity in many cells An example of distributed representation can be found in the system we use for color vision Color vision We perceive hundreds of different colors How can we do this? 2 possible scenarios o Evolution produced hundreds of different color pigments in our retinas, one for each color we see o Evolution produced a few primary color pigments, and all the colors we see are produced by combinations of these few primary colors 3 cone types are able to represent all the colors we perceive Each type of cone participates in representing many different hues. Each hue is represented by actually 2 or 3 different cone types. The color we perceive depends on the ratios of activity in the 3 types of cones. Brain imaging and recording Structure o CAT* (computerized axial tomography) o MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) Function
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o PET* (positron emission tomography) Measures bloow flow in brain Good spatial resolution; poor temporal resolution o fMRI (Functional magnetic resonance imaging) Measures use of oxygen in the brain Good spatial resolution, poor temporal resolution o EEG (electroencephalography) Poor spatial resolution, good temporal resolution *Requires use of radioactive substances
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Perception Overview to Perception Complexities o Modularity o Gestalt principles Bottom-up Processes o Template matching o Features analysis Perceptual Constancies: Perception is “smart” Size constancy o =/= retinal image size o Uses depth cues (monocular and binocular) Linear perspective, height in visual field, motion parallax, etc.
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