Following the initial consultation and examination

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Following the initial consultation and examination, the endocrinologist ordered tests to determine whether Michael was indeed hyperthyroid. The test results indicated an elevation in the concentration of thyroid hormones with an elevated PBI value in the blood and the presence of thyroid-stimulating antibodies. These antibodies specifically stimulate the thyroid gland by binding with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor located on the plasma membrane of the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. Based on these results, the endocrinologist concluded that Michael had Grave's disease, a form of hyperthyroidism believed to be autoimmune in nature. Michael was presented with a number of possible treatment options. These included treatment with chemicals (propylthiouracil and methimazole) that decrease the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland, radioisotopic destruction of the thyroid gland by the use of 131 I, and surgical removal of the thyroid gland. After considering all the options, Michael chose surgery. Following successful surgery, Michael was prescribed synthetic thyroid hormone to ensure that his body was receiving adequate thyroid hormone and told to return within 2 months for a follow-up evaluation of circulating thyroid hormone concentrations. He was also cautioned to carefully monitor his calcium intake.
1. Define the bold termsin the text. 2. Thyroid hormones exert their effects on cells in a manner similar to steroid hormones; describe the mechanism of action of thyroid hormones.

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