NE101 Lecture Notes

Dedicated navigational system that plots locations

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dedicated navigational system that plots locations and integrates paths place cells – locate where the subject is in the environment depending on which cell is active Testing spatial memory in rats
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T-maze alteration distinguishing left-turn vs. right-turn routes remembering the previous episode to guide the next choice episodic memory theory: distinct spatial memories are represented as sequences of events and places only one type of cell is fired despite the location in environment How does the hippocampus represent what happened where? Have mice perform a task where they learn the meaning of objects and where they are two different context with two cups of sand context A: yellow cup has reward context B: purple cup has reward hipppocampal item-context representations support learning item-position cells appear in parallel with learning item specificity is superimposed onto spatial representation item-position cells predict accuracy The hippocampus parses spatial context into place fields, and encode events at locations within the contextual scaffold Episodic memory: Representing the order of events in experience Odor sequence: A → B → C → D → E Odor probe: B before D, etc. Recognition probe: B not X, etc. Hippocampus is critical for memory order Order: A, B, C, D, E → B vs. D Item: A, B, C, D, E → B vs. X “How does the hippocampus map out time?” How are events encoded within distinct sequences of events? Hippocampal cells fire sequentially during the memory delay time cells fire selectively during events that compose a unique sequence fire in spatial memory too The hippocampus creates a scaffolding for memories, representing events in their spatial and temporal context. November 16, 2012: Audition Auditory research Cochlear implants taps into working areas of auditory apparatus & simulate auditory experience Relation between the physical and perceptual dimensions of sound Auditory information is just a change in pressure in the atmosphere amplitude – loudness frequency – pitch complexity – timbre Structures Basilar membrane – translate auditory information into neural impulses hammer bangs on window → waves in fluid frequency at which the hammer hits window determines wave motions hair cells – tops of hair wave back and forth based on the wave motion of the fluid
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Place Coding vibrations closer to the base of the basilar membrane = higher frequency vibrations further from the base of the basilar membrane = lower frequency Frequency producing maximum amplitude 16 kHz – 500 Hz How do you hear sounds below 500 Hz?
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