OAA which has similar structure to Glutamic acid a neurotransmitter OAA

Oaa which has similar structure to glutamic acid a

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- OAA) which has similar structure to Glutamic acid (a neurotransmitter). OAA competes with glutamic acid in the brain; it binds with neurons and keeps them excited Binds with neurons specifically involved in locomotion Cooking peas with wet heat can eliminate toxin β - OAA is also found in ginseng but not consumed at high enough amounts for it to be toxic o The grass peas are common in areas of drought, but intake has to be >30% of NRG intake for negative effects to occur Protein content in the grass pea is as high as soybeans ANTI-NUTRITION FACTORS - Maillard reaction products: Lys residue of protein forming complex with reducing sugar o Microflora can degrade some of them Can also change composition of microbiota depending on which product consumed o May bind carcinogens in GI tract and have strong antioxidant capabilities o Roasting peanuts can lead to increased types of MRP that risk of food allergies The opposite is seen in soybeans § Y ou can’t make generalizations - Acrylamide: most intake comes from food processing (i.e.- baked potato foods, beer); formed from reaction with reducing sugar. Byproduct of MRP during heating process
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2/6/2014 29 o But Asn (vs Lys) reacts with reducing sugar o When fed in high amounts, it can cause cancer o Safe dose = 500 - Glycosides: goitrogens & cyanogens o Goitrogens: S-containing glycosides in raw soy that lead to thyroid enlargement in rats, but the effects can be outcompeted by supplying more iodine Also found in cruciferous vegetables (i.e.- broccoli, cabbage family) which also contain isothiocyanates which block peroxidase enzyme involved in the synthesis of active thyroid hormones Decreased goitrogen content with moist heat o Cyanogens: releases CN during cooking in vapors Found in cassava, lima beans and sorghum - Miscellaneous Anti-Nutrition Factors o Metal binding factors: can be inactivated by heat o Gossypal: yellowish pigment in cotton seeds; causes poor absorption of Met and Lys Binds to the ε -amino group If fed to chicken, it turns egg yolk pink but ruminants are insensitive Destroyed by heat o Tannins: flavone compounds, bitter polyphenolic compounds; found in cereal grains and legumes. May be resistant to hydrolysis in GI tract Interfere with proteolytic enzymes or affect absorption by forming compounds with proteins. In high amounts they can cause pancreatic hypertrophy by interfering with proteolytic enzyme Found in sorghum (0.5-72) and chickpeas o Phytates: phytonutrients that may act as antioxidants Serves as storehouse of minerals for growth in plants. Decreases absorption by chelating metal cofactors needed by digestive enzymes
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2/10/2014 30 - Basal metabolic rate= minimum NRG requirement for the body at rest o TEF (thermic effect of food): temporary in NRG requirement/ heat given off to digest food Measured in caiman (alligator) which have a very low RMR (1/10 the rate of humans), by feeding it casein, fish and gelatin in isonitrogenous amounts In casein and fish diets there was a 300% in heat given off via O consumption
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  • Spring '14
  • Knutson,MitchellD
  • Trp

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