usually less effective when the dynamics of the group are muddled or when

Usually less effective when the dynamics of the group

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usually less effective when the dynamics of the group are muddled or when participants with very varied levels of dominance are involved. For such situations, other creativity techniques may be better suited, e.g., the 6-3-5 method (six participants, three ideas each, fivefold hand- off of the ideas) [Rohrbach 1969] or the brainwriting method. Brainstorming paradox Brainstorming paradox is a modification of regular brainstorming in that events that must not occur are collected. Afterward, the group develops measures to prevent the events collected earlier from hap- pening. Through this process, participants often realize which actions may entail negative results. With this method, risks can be identified early on and countermeasures can be developed. Advantages and dis- advantages of this technique are identical to those of classic brain- storming. Change of perspective Change of perspective: Among the techniques that employ a change of perspective (adopting different extreme standpoints), the most com- mon technique is the so-called Six Thinking Hats [DeBono 2006] . Each of the six hats represents a particular perspective that is in turn adopted by each of the participants. The resulting solutions approach the problem from different standpoints. That way, even stakeholders that are very convinced of their own opinion are persuaded to adopt a different standpoint. This technique is extraordinarily beneficial when stakeholders can only express their knowledge in a biased manner or are harshly constricted to their opinions. On the other hand, this tech- nique cannot be applied if the requirements require a fine-grained level of detail because this would render the technique very laborious. Analogy technique Analogy techniques (bionics/bisociations): In bionics, problems that the project faces are mapped to an analogous situation occurring in nature, and the solutions nature provides are sought and then mapped back to the project. In bisociation, the analogies need not originate in nature. These techniques assume that each participant is capable of analogous thinking, that a lot of time is available, and that the partici- pants have an in-depth knowledge of the domain with which an anal- ogy will be drawn. Analogy techniques can be applied covertly or in the open. When this technique is applied covertly, the participants are only told the analogy. The requirements engineer is then responsible
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28 3 Eliciting Requirements for mapping the results onto the real problem space. When this tech- nique is applied in the open, the stakeholders know the real problem space as well as the analogy. 3.3.4 Document-centric Techniques Document-centric techniques reuse solutions and experiences made with existing systems. When a legacy system is replaced, this technique ensures that the entire functionality of the legacy system can be identified. Docu- ment-centric techniques should be combined with other elicitation tech- niques so that the validity of the elicited requirements can be determined and new requirements for the new system can be identified.
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