Keywords factual 87 describe plasticity are

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KEYWORDS: Factual 87. Describe plasticity. Are compensatory changes in the elderly an example of plasticity? Does research using neural stem cells support the idea of plasticity? ANSWER: Plasticity in the brain refers to its ability to change in structure and function as a relation of the brain's interaction with the environment. Plasticity refers to brain change or flexibility over time. The fact that research documents that older adults can improve their memories by being trained to use certain strategies in certain circumstances speaks to the brain's ongoing plasticity. Evidence for plasticity is also seen when older adults use bilateral activation. While younger adults use more unilateral activation when working on specific tasks, older adults use more bilateral activation. It appears they are working harder and utilizing more brain structures to optimize their thinking and performance. Finally, it was believed that neurogenesis (the proliferation of neural cells) dwindled with the embryonic period. The finding that neural stem cells exist in adult brains and can generate new neurons throughout the life span speaks to the plasticity of the human brain. REFERENCES: Neural Plasticity and the Aging Brain LEARNING OBJECTIVES: ADaA.CAVA.15.02.11 - What evidence is there for neural plasticity? KEYWORDS: Factual
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88. Can exercise actually improve one's cognitive skills? Cite examples from research to support. ANSWER: Research clearly shows that brain plasticity is enhanced by aerobic exercise. For example, Erickson and colleagues (2009) were interested in whether aerobic exercise had any effect on the volume of the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in memory. Participants exercised on a treadmill, completed a spatial memory task, and had MRIs to determine hippocampal volume. Results indicated that higher fitness levels were associated with greater hippocampal weights, which in turn were associated with greater performance on the spatial memory task. REFERENCES: Neural Plasticity and the Aging Brain LEARNING OBJECTIVES: ADaA.CAVA.15.02.12 - How does aerobic exercise influence brain changes and cognitive activity? KEYWORDS: Conceptual 89. What type of nutrition has been associated with better cognitive functioning and greater brain volume? What type of nutrition has been connected to poorer cognitive outcomes? ANSWER: Certain biomarkers, namely those plasma levels high in B, C, D, and E and those high in omega-3 fatty acids (particularly DHA) were associated with higher cognitive functioning and greater overall brain volume. On the other hand, blood plasma levels high in trans fats were associated with lower cognitive functioning and less total cerebral volume. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that keeping certain levels of specific nutrients in blood plasma enhanced cognitive ability. Researchers
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