2 process rationalization and standardization

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2. Process rationalization and standardization Automated process planning leads to more logical and consistent process plans than when process planning is done completely manually. Standard plans tend to result lower manufacturing costs and higher product quality. 3. Reduced lead time for process planning Process planner working with the CAPP system can provide route sheets in shorter lead time compared to manual preparation. 4. Improved legibility Computer prepare route sheets are neater and easier to read than manually prepared route sheets. 5. Incorporation of other application programs The CAPP programs can be interfaced with other application programs, such as cost estimating, work standards and other. 8. Explain the fundamental concept in Material Requirements Planning. (10 marks) Fundamental Concept In MRP Material requirements planning are base on several concepts that are implicit in the preceding description but not explicitly define. These concepts are: 1. Independent versus dependent demand 2. Manufacturing lead time 3. Common use items Independent demand pattern must be forecasted. Dependent demand means that demand for the item is related directly to demand for some other products. The dependency usually derives from the fact that the item is a component of the other products. Not only component parts but also raw materials sub assemblies are examples of items subject to dependent demand. MRP is the appropriate technique for determining quantities of dependent demand items. These items constitute the inventory of manufacturing, raw material, work in process, component part and subassemblies. The lead time for a job is the time that must be allowed to complete the job from start to finish. These are two types of lead times in MRP, ordering lead times and manufacturing leads times. And ordering leads times for an item is the time require from initiation of the purchase requisition to the receipt of the item from the vendor. Common use items are raw materials and components that are used on more than one product. MRP collects these common use items from different products to affect economies in ordering the raw materials and producing the components.
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18 9. What are the output reports and benefits of the MRP (Materials Requirements Planning)? (10 marks) Output reports and benefits of MRP The MRP programs generate a variety of output that can be used in planning and managing plant operations. The outputs include: Order release notices, which provide the authority to place orders that have been planed by the MRP system. Report of planned order release in future periods Rescheduling notices, indicating changes in due dates for open order Cancellation notices, indicating that certain open orders have been canceled because of changes in the master production schedule Reports on inventory status Performance reports of various types, indicating costs, item usage, actual versus planned lead times, etc.
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