CLEP Principles of Management 1

51 52 pert network breaks down a project into its

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51. 52. PERT – network breaks down a project into its activities and displays the sequence of activities and events as a network. Timing and sequencing are the two primary concerns of this chart. A PERT ( P rogram E valuation and R eview T echnique) network, or chart, is a planning and control method which emphasizes the relationships of events and activities which make up a project and their timing. A PERT network is a planning tool which involves breaking down the steps to achieving a goal into a series of events. The events are represented as circles, or nodes, and connected by arrows which represent the time required to reach that event. A PERT network is a popular planning and control tool because it allows planning the sequence of events and the timing. It does not take into account things such as employee motivation, however, and timing can be shorter or longer than predicted. A PERT chart can be used not only to plan the activities, but it can later be used to determine how well the organization is meeting its goals for that plan. PERT identifies the critical path as the set of dependent tasks that together take the longest time to complete. It was invented by the US Department of Defense to speed up the process of military project management; it was quickly adopted by the private sector. Critical Path method is a variant of the PERT method, but tends to emphasize cost as well as time. Critical Path Method (CPM) involves a PERT chart, and many consider the two virtually identical. However, CPM assumes previous experience with the work involved and often includes cost estimates as well as timing. In a PERT or CPM network, the arrows represent activities. Activities are the work being done, and take up time. In a PERT or CPM network, events are represented by nodes and are the start or end of an activity. Events are the start or end of an activity--a significant performance milestone in the program plan, and do not take up time. In a PERT or CPM network, the critical path is the sequence of activities which is the longest in terms of total time. This is known as the critical path. 53. 54. Collective bargaining- an attempt by a union and mgmt to come to an agreement on employment conditions, and if successful, results in a contract.
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Wagner Act requires employers to engage in collective bargaining with a National Labor Relations Board certified union. Through collective bargaining, unions work out a contract detailing conditions of employment for union employees. When a claim is made that the contract has been violated, this is known as a grievance. The contract should describe a grievance procedure which outlines how the grievance will be dealt with. Unions and companies must bargain in good faith, assuming the union is certified by the National Labor Relations Board. The union must be certified by the NLRB. To be certified, the union must represent the employees who are affected by this bargaining, and have been elected by those employees to represent them.
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