33.What reactions involved in aerobic respiration occur in the mitochondria? 34.What is the purpose of glycolysis? What are the products and reactants involved in glycolysis? 35.Why does glycolysis occur in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration?It is an anaerobic reaction that produces the pyruvic acid needed for both 36.How is alcoholic fermentation different from lactic acid fermentation? 37.What are the products and reactants of the Kreb’s cycle? Where does it take place?<- In the mitochondria 38.What are the products and reactants of the electron transport chain? Where is it located? 39.Briefly describe how NADH, FADH2 and ATP are formed during respiration
40.Why is it necessary for oxygen to be the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration?Without Oxygen, the remaining energy must be stored in chemical form such as lactic acid or alcohol. 41.Define the term energy.Ability to do work. 42.When chemical bonds are formed between to two atoms, is energy being released or stored? 43.How is energy released when bonds are broken? 44.How many calories are found in one gram of carbohydrate? Protein? Fat? 45.What is special about the structure of a lipid that accounts for there being more calories per gram of fat than per gram of carbohydrate or protein? 46.What are the three parts of an ATP molecule? 47.Which bonds in an ATP molecule are identified as “high energy bonds”? 48. Write the equation for the hydrolysis of ATP. 49. Show how ADP and ATP can be recycled as energy is stored and released. 50.How can the recycling of ATP be used to run the “machinery” of a cell? 51. State the first and second laws of thermodynamics and gives examples of each. 1 st – energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but can be converted to another form; 2 nd – systems always lose energy 52. How does the first law of thermodynamics relate to photosynthesis and cellular respiration? Light energy is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis, then converted to another form, ATP, by respiration, then flows out of the system as biological work, heat and waste.
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