is now not only psychology in the academic or college sense but also a

Is now not only psychology in the academic or college

This preview shows page 4 - 5 out of 6 pages.

is now not only psychology in the academic or college sense, but also a Psychology of Business, Psychology of Education, a Psychology of Salesmanship, a Psychology of Religion... and a Psychology of Playing the Banjo .... For almost every junc- ture of life we now call in the services of an expert psychologist as naturally as we send for an emergency plumber. In all our great cities there are already, or soon will be, signs that read "PsychologistmOpenDay and Night." (pp. 471-472) Psychologists in clinical work were breaking new ground, largely based on their postwar experiences with battle- fatigued veterans. Military contacts provided entry into a wider array of settings in business and industry than had previously been open to psychologists. But the "out- break of psychology" was short lived. By the middle of the 1920s the clamor for psychological services seemed to have reached its peak, and by the end of the decade it was on a steep decline. Psychology's Depression Although many psychologists were enjoying the public attention and the increased opportunities for income, there were saner heads who cautioned the public about "pop" psychology and even apologized for the exaggerated claims being made on behalf of psychology (e.g., Dunlap, 1920; Guernsey, 1923; Watson, 1928). Leacock's article was only one of many in the 1920s that questioned the value of psychology for society. These critical articles began to appear in the middle of the 1920s, when the business community's interest in psychology began to wane. Probably business and industry had less need for psychological services at that time because the rapid employee turnover, so common after the war, had stabilized. But it is also probable that business was be- coming less satisfied with psychology because of the fraudulent practices of the many pseudopsychologists and the realization that the science of legitimate psychologists was not immediately capable of solving the problems that business faced (Sokal, 1984). One ofpsychology's harshest critics in the late 1920s and 1930s was Grace Adams, who had studied psychology with Titchener at Cornell University. Her 1928 article in the American Mercury, entitled "The Decline of Psy- chology in America," was a vociferous attack on applied psychology: She argued that psychology had forsaken its scientific roots so that individual psychologists might achieve popularity and prosperity. In an article for the Atlantic Monthly, Adams (1934) chided psychologists for masquerading as scientists when their discipline was only a groping philosophy of hope. She wrote, "for all its the- ories, [psychology] has performed no miracles. It has re- named our emotions 'complexes' and our habits 'con- ditioned reflexes,' but it has neither changed our habits nor rid us of our emotions" (p. 92).
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  • Winter '20
  • besim hoca
  • Psychology, The American, American Psychological Association, American Psychology, The New Psychology

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